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The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of UV-C stimulation of tubers, immersion of potato sticks in water, and a frying fat type on the content of fat in dry mass of French fries. Tests were carried out on Innovator tubers which is one of the most often used cultivator in production of French fries by the European and Polish companies. Radiation of potato tubers with ultraviolet in band C were performed with the use of the original stand for stimulation of biological material with electro-magnetic radiation. A statistical analysis of the obtained results of tests indicates that stimulation of tubers and a type of frying fat had a statistically significant impact on the fat content in dry mass of French fries.


The biological effects of immersion in water, which are related to the fundamental principles of hydrodynamics, may be beneficial in certain training contexts. The effects and physical properties of water, such as density, hydrostatic pressure and buoyancy are highly useful resources for training, when used as a counterbalance to gravity, resistance, a compressor and a thermal conductor. Not only does the aquatic medium enable a wider range of activities to be used in a context of low joint impact, but it also constitutes a useful tool in relation to sports rehabilitation, since it allows the athlete to return to training earlier or to continue with high-intensity exercise while ensuring both low joint impact and greater comfort for the individual concerned. Moreover, this medium enables the stimulation of metabolic and neuromuscular systems, followed by their corresponding physiological adaptations allowing both to maintain and improve athletic performance. Hydrotherapy can also play a beneficial role in an athlete’s recovery, helping to prevent as well as treat muscle damage and soreness following exercise.


In this study the influence of selected factors, such as duration of water sorption resulting from the process of reducing sugars elution from semi-finished products, temperature of sorbed water, frying temperature and size of the studied objects (thickness of slices), on the total fat content in dry mass of the obtained products was analyzed. The study was conducted on Innovator cultivar. The scope of the study encompassed 5, 10, 15, 20 min water sorption linked to the process of reducing sugars elution. A control study was also conducted on samples without the process of reducing sugars elution. Temperature of sorbed water was 20 and 40°C; temperature of slice frying was 140 and 180°C; the size of the studied objects, in the experiment limited by the thickness of slices, was 4 and 9 mm. Determination of the total fat content in the products was conducted using the Soxhlet method. The greatest amount of fat in dry weight was contained in the products from samples in which sugars were not eluted, when the process was conducted for a short period of time (several minutes) or when elution continued for the longest period of time, approx. 20 min. The smallest amount of fat was contained in the products from samples in which the immersion in water was conducted for 10-15 min. Thicker slices absorb smaller amounts of fat. Increase of temperature of sorbed water in the process of extracting sugars from semi-finished products results in the increase of the total fat content in dry weight of products.

Effect of Different Types of Recovery on Blood Lactate Removal After Maximum Exercise

Introduction. Despite physiological changes caused by immersion in liquid medium, few studies have been conducted to determine the kinetics of blood lactate removal under these conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effect of active recovery, using a specific water bike, on the blood lactate concentration after maximum intensity exercise. Material and method. Ten healthy cycling athletes performed an Anaerobic Threshold Test by Heart Rate (HR) on a bicycle ergometer and an Anaerobic Threshold Test by Subjective Effort Perception on an aquatic bicycle ergometer. Three maximal test was performed immediately before each recovery type, in three different days: Passive Recovery on Land - PRL (horizontal position for 60 minutes), Passive Recovery in the Water - PRW (horizontal position, with the help of floats, in swimming pool for 60 minutes) and Active Recovery in the Water - ARW (the volunteer performed exercises on a water bicycle to an intensity corresponding to 85% of the intensity of LA in water, for 30 minutes, and remained in the same position of the PRW for another 30 minutes). Blood samples were collected 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after the maximal test, for lactate analysis. Results. The [La] blood did not show the difference between the three types of recovery at 5th min. From 15th min on, the difference between the ARW and the other two types of passive recovery was significant, and the ARW showed lower values. There was no significant difference between the PRW and PRL. Conclusion. Mere immersion in water is not enough to maximize the removal of blood lactate. This study demonstrates that active recovery held in water is effective for the removal of blood lactate in cyclists.

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.5.558 28441054 King M.R. Haussler K.K. Kawcak C.E. McIlwraith C.W. Reiser R.F. II Frisbie D.D. Werpy N.M. Biomechanical and histologic evaluation of the effects of underwater treadmill exercise on horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis in the middle carpal joint Am J Vet Res 2017 78 558 569 17 Levine D., Marcellin-Little D.J., Millis D.L., Tragauer V., Osborne J.A.: Effects of partial immersion in water on vertical ground reaction forces and weight distribution in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2010, 71, 1413–1416. 21117991 10.2460/ajvr.71.12.1413 Levine D. Marcellin-Little D

length of childbirth was normal. Then, there are 13 respondents (43,3%) that first stage length of childbirth is abnormal. 3. There is an effect of yoga on the first stage length of childbirth at Biru Public Health Centre of Bone Regency. REFERENCES Battle CL, Uebelacker LA, Magee SR, Sutton KA, Miller IW, Hospital B, et al. HHS Public Access. 2016;25(2):134–41. Chen H, Cao L, Cao W, Wang H, Zhu C, Zhou R. Factors affecting labor duration in Chinese pregnant women. 2014;1–8. Cluett ER, Burns E. Europe PMC Funders Group Immersion in water in labour and