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In May 2001, a traveling party of 26 Mexican citizens tried to cross the Arizonan desert in order to enter the United States illegally. Their attempt turned into a front-page news event after 14 died and 12 barely made it across the border due to Border Patrol intervention. Against the background of consistent tightening of anti-immigration laws in the United States, my essay aims to examine the manner in which Luis Alberto Urrea’s The Devil’s Highway: A True Story (2004) reenacts the group’s journey from Mexico through the “vast trickery of sand” to the United States in a rather poetic and mythical rendition of the travel north. Written to include multiple perspectives (of the immigrants and their coyotes, the immigration authorities, Border Patrol agents, high officials on both sides of the border), Urrea’s account, I argue, stands witness to and casts light on the often invisible plight of those attempting illegal passage to the United States across the desert. It thus humanizes the otherwise dry statistics of immigration control by focusing on the everyday realities of human-smuggling operations and their economic and social consequences in the borderland region. At the same time, my paper highlights the impact of the Wellton 26 case on the (re)negotiation of identity politics and death politics at the US-Mexican border.


Since 2011 a sustainable growth of illegal immigrants in the EU has been observed. As a result, Bulgaria has become one of the most affected member states of the EU. This article aims to research the main factors, resulted from the illegal immigration, which are changing the national security environment in Bulgaria. This paper is focused on the improvement of legal and political mechanisms for cooperation between the EU member states, coming from the Common asylum and immigration policy and building of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice in the EU.


This paper explores some recent changes in the structure of Bulgarian society and the corresponding challenges, related to human rights and security in general and in relation to different societal segments. Specifically, lately Bulgaria has been becoming a more and more multicultural country. Due to demographic, economic and other reasons, the number of ethnic Bulgarians is continuously decreasing. Reciprocally, the number of Roma population is increasing. Moreover, Bulgaria is a country recently flooded by refugees and illegal immigrants from Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq, the Arab world, etc. Different religious groups, sometimes imported, started pretending more rights and space in Bulgarian realm. The paper pays attention to the evolution of the attitude of Bulgarian citizens with regard to the protection of their human rights and the rights of the others. The sensitive issue of security and safety at the current stage of development is discussed. This study also presents the results from an inquiry of a specialized audience - law students. Their attitude towards the mentioned problems of the day is explored. Respondents' suggestions for more efficient, non-traditional tools for resolving the “hot” issues and securing safety are offered.

conducted by qualifi ed experts. Jakub Kryłowski (University of Warsaw) presented the idea of applying oculography in research on linguistic preferences. He discussed the concept of cognitive inhibition. Regarding the potential implications of determining linguistic preferences in detection of deception – the method might be helpful for example in checking whether a  person (an illegal immigrant or espionage suspect) is concealing the knowledge of a specifi c language. It is also worth to be aware that lying in a non- native language may result in less signifi cant

l25 people lost their lives trying to cross it. Carr’s book is divided basically into two parts: ‘Hard Borders’ and ‘Border Crossings’. Carr discusses the physical and bureaucratic barriers and the political and human consequences of these barriers, creating what are widely known as ‘illegal immigrants’ (a non-legal term). The Lisbon Treaty of 2008 set out with ideals of respect for people in need of safety, coming from places of war and turmoil. At the time of publication, there were 214 million people living outside their national borders and another 26

middle class youth living together, or any number of possible configurations. All of them are politicized to various degrees by simply engaging in disensual practice. Isolating activist ghettos and clearing them out of any social resonance and relations with various segments in society, including those which are most marginalized and demonized (‘illegalimmigrants, drug addicts, mentally ill, etc.), is precisely a political gesture of great importance. Making these artificial divisions (such as the author does) in order not to give the media a chance to vilify

Caponi, V.; M. Plesca (2014): Empirical Characteristics of Legal and Illegal Immigrants in the USA. Journal of Population Economics 27, 923-960. Caponi V. Plesca M. 2014 Empirical Characteristics of Legal and Illegal Immigrants in the USA Journal of Population Economics 27 923 960 Cattaneo, C.; C. V. Fiorio; G. Peri (2013): What Happens to the Careers of European Workers When Immigrants ‘Take Their Jobs’? The Journal of Human Resources 50(3), 655-693. Cattaneo C. Fiorio C. V. Peri G. 2013 What Happens to the Careers of European Workers When Immigrants ‘Take Their Jobs

of the Sarawak-Kalimantan border. It is the major transit point into the country for illegal migrants, with as many as 60,000 illegal immigrants into Sabah receiving MyKads (Identity Cards). This practice is criticize by political opposition as a source of illegal voters. Regular kidnapping took place in the Sulu Sea region by both pirates and Abu Sayyaf. Thus piracy and trespass of criminals and illegal fishing boats that came into the sea borders cause major problem to Sabah and Sarawak. ESSCom (Eastern Sabah Security Command) have been criticise, for

to radicalize. On the other hand, however, we must have an understanding for this request of the European Union. This understanding may, for example, be expressed by providing solidarity aid to the countries where refugees are located. [...] This is still better than having refugees on our own territory.” “I’m not saying that we should refuse immigrants, I’m saying that we should refuse both illegal immigrants and Muslim immigrants. Mr. Prime Minister assumes that we should not accept them based on mandatory quotas but on a voluntary basis. Which, to be honest, is

problems have been identified. First, citizenship is both inclusive and exclusive, and hence in modern societies, there is an acute problem around both internal and external boundaries. By providing criteria of membership that determine access to shared resources, citizenship necessarily defines a boundary to society, which excludes people who do not or cannot possess those criteria of membership. The exclusionary force of citizenship is normally experienced by immigrants, especially illegal immigrants, and ethnic minorities. However, stigmatised social groups within a