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Northern Poland: sedimentary environments, stratigraphy and palaeogeography. PIG Press, Warsaw, 91-92. Koster, E.A., 1988. Ancient and modern cold-climate aeolian sand deposition: a review. Journal of Quaternary Science 3, 69-83. Kozarski, S., 1965. Zagadnienie drogi odpływu wód pradolinnych z zachodniej części Pradoliny Noteci-Warty [The problem of the outflow from the western part of Noteć-Warta ice-marginal valley]. Prace Komisji Geograficzno-Geologicznej 5, 87 pp. Kozarski, S., 1986. Skale czasu a rytm zdarzeń zdarzeń geomorfologicznych vistulianu na Niżu Polskim


The aim of this study was to demonstrate that alluvial sediments of Wrocław ice-marginal Valley are characterized by higher con-centrations of metallic elements in relation to the adjacent areas of different soil cover genesis.

Studies of zinc and arsenic content in soils were carried out in six municipalities of Średzki district. A total of 117 soil samples from arable land was collected: 80 from Średzka Upland and 37 from Wrocław ice-marginal Valley

The process of accumulation of heavy metals in alluvial sediments in the Wocław ice-marginal Valley is so effective that, despite the heavier grain size composition of the soil cover immediately adjacent to Średzka Upland, zinc and arsenic concentrations are higher in the alluvial soils.

-201. Boothroyd, J.C. & Ashley, G.M., 1975. Processes, bar morphology and sedimentary structures on braided outwash fans, northeastern Gulf of Alaska. [In:] A.V. Jopling & B.C. McDonald (Eds): Glaciofluvial and Glaciolacustrine Sedimentation. Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Special Publication 23, 193-222. Börner, A., 2007. Das Eberswalder Urstromtal - Untersuchung zur pleistozänen Landschaftsgenese zwischen Niederem Oderbruch und Werbellinseerinne (Nordost- Brandenburg) [The Eberswalde ice-marginal valley - investigation of the Pleistocene genesis of the


The heavy-mineral composition of the Weichselian fluvial successions deposited by an ephemeral meandering river and by a sand-bed braided river in the Toruń Basin (central Poland) was analysed. On the basis of a lithofacies analysis, in combination with the composition of the heavy-mineral assemblages, the fluvial processes and river-channel morphology were reconstructed. This allows determining the provenance of the fluvial deposits and the rivers’ discharge regimes. A model is proposed which can explain the changes in the amount of individual minerals in the fluvial sediments of different ages under the conditions of the oscillating Scandinavian ice sheet. The model assumes that, during the ice-sheet advances, the proglacial streams supplied large amounts of heavy minerals that were less resistant to mechanical abrasion. During the main phase of the ice-sheet retreat, the distance between the ice sheet and the Toruń Basin increased, and the amount of non-resistant minerals diminished as a result of sediment reworking in proglacial rivers. Due to the unique location of the Toruń Basin at the front of the Scandinavian ice sheet during the Weichselian glaciation, the heavy-mineral assemblages in the fluvial deposits form a valuable tool for the recognition of the ice-sheet extent.

Palaeoslopes of Weichselian sand-bed braided rivers in the Toruń Basin (Poland): results of a palaeohydraulic analysis

Palaeoslopes of Weichselian sand-bed braided rivers have been reconstructed for two stages of fluvial development in the Toruń Basin. (1) The palaeoslope of the ‘fossil’ fluvial succession (buried under Weichselian tills) was calculated on the basis of the median grain size and the Shields parameter. The hydraulic gradient thus found is comparable with the hydraulic gradient of the present-day river. (2) The second developmental stage of the Toruń Basin (as a apart of the Noteć-Warta ice-marginal valley) took place after deglaciation. The slopes of river terraces are a few times lower than those calculated on the basis of the Shields parameter. The palaeoslope of the then river was estimated on the basis of a constant interdependency between the braidplain width, the channel geometry and the grain size. The river gradient that was thus calculated is similar to the measured terrace slope. Palaeoslope estimates in valleys similar to those in the Toruń Basin should consider the width of the braidplain.

Geograficzne IG PAN 74: 101-120 (in Polish). Galon R, 1972. Główne etapy tworzenia się rzeźby Niżu Polskiego (The main stage of creation of Polish Lowland relief). In: Galon R, ed., Geomorfologia Polski 2. Warszawa, PWN: 35-110 (in Polish). Kozarski S, 1962. Recesja ostatniego lądolodu z północnej części Wysoczyzny Gnieźnieńskiej a kształtowanie się Pradoliny Noteci-Warty (Recession of the last continental glacier from north part of Gniezno morainic plateau and forming Notec-Warta ice-marginal valley). Prace Komisji Geograficzno-Geologicznej, Poznańskie Towarzystwo

W.: Geotechnical Properties of Peats and Peaty Soils. Methods of Their Determination. General Report. Proceedings 2nd Baltic Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Tallin1988. 36. Żurek S.: Development of the fossil Holocene lakes in the Biebrza ice-marginal valley against the background of the Maliszewskie Lake sediments. Pol. Arch. Hydrob. 25, 1978.

inferred from Pleistocene deposits of Mysliborz Lakeland, NW Poland. Geografiska Annaler 90, 237–249. Pisarska-Jamroży, M., 2015. Factors controlling sedimentation in the Toruń-Eberswalde ice-marginal valley during the Pomeranian phase of Weichselian glaciation: an overview. Geologos 21, 1–29. Pisarska-Jamroży, M. & Zieliński, T., 2014. Pleistocene sandur rhythms, cycles and megacycles: Interpretation of depositional scenarios and palaeoenvironmental conditions. Boreas 43, 330–348. Pisarska-Jamroży, M., Van Loon, A.J., Mleczak, M. & Roman, M., 2019a. Enigmatic

Pradolinie Noteci koło Czarnkowa (Dunes ih the Noteć Ice-Marginal Valley near Czarnków). Badania fizjograficzne nad Polską Zachodnią IX, Poznań: 37-60 (in Polish). Kozarski S and Nowaczyk B, 1991. The Late Quaternary Climate and Human Impact on Aeolian Processes in Poland. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie N. F., Supplmentband 93: 29-37. Kozarski S and Nowaczyk B, 1992. Późnovistuliańskie i holoceńskie zjawiska eoliczne w regionie dolnej Odry i dolnej Warty (Litophacies variation and chronostratigraphy of Late Vistulian and Holocene aeolian phenomena in northwestern