Objectives: Molecular characterization of a patient with BWS.
Clinical presentation and intervention: A 4-year-old boy with overgrowth (weight above 99th and height at 99th percentile) had longitudinal hemihypertrophy of the tongue and left cheek. In addition, there was a difference of one centimeter in the circumference of the left and right leg. Molecular genetic analysis revealed hypomethylation of KvDRM1 (LIT1) in the imprinting control region-2 (ICR2) on chromosome 11p15.5 and a normal methylation pattern of the H19-differentially methylated region (H19-DMR) in the ICR1. The estimated tumor risk was 1-5%.
Conclusion: This patient with clinical characteristics of BWS has an imprinting defect associated with a low risk of embryonal tumors.
Protein glycosylation in sugar beet cell line can be influenced by DNA hyper- and hypomethylating agents
Protein glycosylation is a co- and post-translational modification that influences protein function, stability and localization. Changes in glycoprotein pattern during differentiation/dedifferentiation events exist in animal cells and DNA methylation status is closely related to the changes. However, in plant cells this relationship is not yet established. In order to verify whether such a relation exists, hypermethylating drugs 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and hydroxyurea, or hypomethylating drug 5-azacytozine were applied to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cells during 14 days of in vitro subculture, and the glycoprotein patterns of the cells were compared. The applied drugs were not toxic, as observed from cell phenotype and by measuring growth of the control and treated cells. Hyper and hypomethylating treatments influenced the activity of enzymes related to differentiation state of the cells: peroxidases and esterases, and their isoform patterns. Electrophoretic patterns of soluble and membrane proteins were similar between control and treatments, but the treatments modified N- and O-linked glycoprotein patterns as visible from GNA and PNA lectin blots. This suggested that hypermethylation and hypomethylation of genomic DNA in sugar beet cells affect protein glycosylation patterns and cellular metabolism, possibly in a mechanism similar to that existing in animal cells.
Epigenetic regulation of fetal bone development and placental transfer of nutrients: progress for osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a common age-related disorder and causes acute and long-term disability and economic cost. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone minerals, including heredity, diet, physical activity, gender, endocrine functions, and risk factors such as alcohol, drug abuse, some pharmacological drugs or cigarette smoking. The pathology of bone development during intrauterine life is a factor for osteoporosis. Moreover, the placental transfer of nutrients plays an important role in the building of bones of fetuses. The importance of maternal calcium intake and vitamin D status are highlighted in this review. Various environmental factors including nutrition state or maternal stress may affect the epigenetic state of a number of genes during fetal development of bones. Histone modifications as histone hypomethylation, histone hypermethylation, hypoacetylation, etc. are involved in chromatin remodeling, known to contribute to the epigenetic landscape of chromosomes, and play roles in both fetal bone development and osteoporosis. This review will give an overview of epigenetic modulation of bone development and placental transfer of nutrients. In addition, the data from animal and human studies support the role of epigenetic modulation of calcium and vitamin D in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. We review the evidence suggesting that various genes are involved in regulation of osteoclast formation and differentiation by osteoblasts and stem cells. Epigenetic changes in growth factors as well as cytokines play a rol in fetal bone development. On balance, the data suggest that there is a link between epigenetic changes in placental transfer of nutrients, including calcium and vitamin D, abnormal intrauterine bone development and pathogenesis of osteoporosis.
and genetic polymorphisms associated with folate metabolism. Eur J Cancer Prev 2002; 11(1): 105-110. Das PM, Singal R. DNA methylation and cancer. J Clin Oncol 2004; 22(22): 4632-4642. Jones PA, Baylin SB. The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer. Nat Rev Genet 2002; 3(6): 415-428. Eden A, Gaudet F, Waghmare A, Jaenisch R. Chromosomal instability and tumors promoted by DNA hypomethylation. Science 2003; 300(5618): 455. Herman JG, Baylin SB. Gene silencing in cancer in association with promoter hypermethylation. N Engl J Med 2003; 349(21): 2042
., Mirko, W., Susanne, K., Tobias, B., Martin, B. & Thomas C. 2010. Tissue Distribution of 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine and Search for Active Demethylation Intermediates. PLOS One, 5(12): e15367. Deaton, A.M. & Bird, A. 2011. CpG islands and the regulation of transcription. Genes & Development, 25(10): 1010–1022. Ehrlich, M. 2009. DNA hypomethylation in cancer cells. Epigenomics, 1(2): 239–259. Esteller, M. 2008. Epigenetics in cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358(11): 1148–1159. Esteller, M., Corn, P.G., Baylin, S.B. & Herman, J.G. 2001. A gene hypermethylation
.pone.0023450. 12. Chubb JE, Bradshaw NJ, Soares DC, Poeteous DJ, Millar JK. The DISC locus in psychiatric illness. Mol Psychiatry. 2008; 13(1): 36-64. 13. Abdolmaleky HM, Cheng KH, Faraone SV, Wilcox M, Glatt SJ, Gao F. Hypomethylation of MB-COMT promoter is a major risk factor for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hum Mol Genet. 2006; 15(21): 3132-3145. 14. Wang J, Robinson JF, Khan HM, Carter DE, McKinney J, Miskie BA, et al. Optimizing RNA extraction yield from whole blood for microarray gene expression analysis. Clin Biochem. 2004; 37(9): 741-744. 15. Yu Z, Ono C, Kim
diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. Cell Res 2008;18:997-1006. 19. Vasu MM, Anitha A, Thanseem I, et al. Serum microRNA profi les in children with autism. Molecular Autism 2014;5:40. 20. Mor M, Nardone S, Sams DS, et al. Hypomethylation of miR-142 promoter and upregulation of microRNAs that target the oxytocin receptor gene in the autism prefrontal cortex. Mol Autism 2015;6:46. 21. Ander BP, Barger N, Stamova B. Atypical miRNA expression in temporal cortex associated with dysregulation of immune, cell cycle, and other pathways in autism spectrum disorders. Mol Autism
, Ladich ER. (2002) Pathology related to chronic arsenic exposure. Environ Health Perspect 110 (Suppl 5): 883-886. Chen H, Li S, Liu J, Diwan BA, Barrett JC, Waalkes MP. (2004) Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure induces hepatic global and individual gene hypomethylation: Implications for arsenic hepatocarcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 25 (9): 1779-1786. Chou S, Odin M, Sage GW, Little S. (2000) Toxicological profile for arsenic. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Datta BK, Mishra A
role of genomic instability in the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2004; 13:1-11. 19. Richards KL, Zhang B, Baggerly KA, Colella S, Lang JC, Schuller DE, et al. Genome-wide hypomethylation in head and neck cancer is more pronounced in HPVnegative tumors and is associated with genomic instability. PLoS One. 2009; 4:e4941. 20. Subbalekha K, Pimkhaokham A, Pavasant P, Chindavijak S, Phokaew C, Shuangshoti S, et al. Detection of LINE-1s hypomethylation in oral rinses of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Oral Oncol