Orhideja Stomnaroska, Elizabeta Petkovska, Sanja Ivanovska, Snezana Jancevska and Dragan Danilovski
1. Sperling M. Hypoglycaemia. In: Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics, Elsevear, Philadelphia, 2016; 655-669.
2. Loman AM, ter Horst HJ, Lambrechtsen FA, Lunsing RJ. Neonatal seizures: aetiology by means of a standardized work-up. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2014;18(3):360-7.
3. WHO ref. number WHO/CHD/97.1/WHO/MSM/97.1 Hypoglycaemia in the newborn. Geneva: World Health Organization. 1997 4, 19.
4. Hawdon JM, Ward Platt MP, Aynsley-Green A. Prevention and management of neonatal hypoglycemia. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1994;70(1):F60
Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka, Abiola O. Oduwole, Elizabeth E. Oyenusi, Isaac O. Oluwayemi, Moustafa Kouyate, Olubunmi Fakaye, Chiedozie J. Achonwa and Mohammad Abdullahi
4. Cryer PE. Hypoglycaemia. In: Harrison’s Endocrinology, 2nd edition. Jameson JL (ed). McGraw Hill Companies, Inc, New York, pp. 314-322, 2010.
5. Ryan CM, Atchison J, Puczynski S, Puczynski M, Arslanian S, Becker D. Mild hypoglycemia associated with deterioration of mental efficiency in children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Pediatr 117: 32-38, 1990.
6. Ryan C, Gurtunca N, Becker D. Hypoglycemia: a complication of diabetes therapy in children. Pediatr Clin North Am 52: 1705-1733, 2005
Draženka Pongrac Barlovič, Andrej Zavratnik, Aleš Skvarča, Karmen Janša, Bojana Vukelič, Marjeta Tomažič and Maja Ravnik Oblak
Intensive hyperglycaemia treatment reduces the risk of development of chronic diabetes complications. However, the main obstacle to attain tight glycaemic goals is the risk of hypoglycaemia ( 1 ). In addition, experiencing hypoglycaemia, especially a nocturnal one, decreases quality of life substantially ( 2 ). Moreover, severe hypoglycaemia, requiring external assistance for recovery, was associated with increased cardiovascular and overall mortality ( 3 ).
Data on hypoglycaemia incidence are variable, mainly because of the lack of a
This paper reports a case of a male infant born to a 32-year-old multiparous mother with overweight (BMI 28.5kg/m2) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The mother had fasting hyperglycaemia (range 5.7- 6.0mmol/L) noted at 24 weeks of pregnancy and was managed with diet alone. There is no family history of diabetes mellitus and the mother did not have pre-eclampsia. Physical examination of the infant revealed macrosomia (birthweight, 4600g) and bilateral congenital cryptorchidism. The baby suffered severe hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 1.7mmol/L) and hypocalcaemia (total serum calcium 1.03mmol/L), manifesting with seizures. He was successfully managed with 10% dextrose water and calcium gluconate infusion, using standard protocol. His karyotype is 46 XY. The patient was discharged from admission at the age of 10 days and was referred to the paediatric endocrinologist at the tertiary hospital. By 8 weeks of age, the right testis was noticed to have descended into the right scrotum. At the age of 3 months, the left testis was still not palpable either in the inguinal canal or the scrotal sac. The patient was lost to follow up. Conclusion: Diet-treated maternal overweight in association with GDM could potentially increase the risk for hypocalcaemia, hypoglycaemia, macrosomia and congenital cryptorchidism in the offspring, highlighting the need for physicians to assess for the presence of these morbidities in such infants.
Emilia Rymkiewicz, Agata Rękas-Wójcik, Sylwia Milaniuk, Barbara Mosiewicz and Grzegorz Dzida
predictor of mortality in hospitalized elderly patients. Arch Intern Med. 2003;163(15):1825-9.
12. Bremer JP, Jauch-Chara K, Hallschmid M, et al. Hypoglycemia unawareness in older compared with middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(8):1513-7.
13. Alagiakrishnan K, Mereu L. Approach to managing hypoglycemia in elderly patients with diabetes. Postgrad Med. 2010;122(3):129-37.
14. Chelliah A, Burge M. Hypoglycaemia in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus: causes and strategies for prevention
Deepika Sharma, Jaspreet Kaur, Monika Rani, Arpit Bansal, Manoj Malik and Sivachidambaram Kulandaivelan
Background and Aims: Diabetes Mellitus may affect the patient’s quality of life and sleep that lead to reduced satisfaction of life. Aim of study was to improve quality of life and sleep along with satisfaction of life by giving physical therapy (pilates based on mat exercise) intervention. Material and Methods: Study design: experimental study, same subject design (pre-post). Sample size: 30 individuals (13 males,17 females) with mean age 46.05±9.01, mean weight 70.48±12.11 and mean duration of diabetes mellitus 7.88±4.49. Intervention: Pilates based mat exercises were given in experimental group. Duration of treatment:30-40minutes.Number of session:5 sessions/week. Total duration: 4 weeks. Outcomes measures: Final Qolid Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Satisfaction with Life Scale. Statistics: descriptive statistics used to measure mean± standard deviation and inferential statistics related t-test used to compare pre and post reading. Results: The results showed highly significant effect of exercise on quality of life and quality of sleep and significant result was found on satisfaction with life. Conclusion: Pilates based mat exercises shows positive effect on all parameters (quality of life, quality of sleep and satisfaction with life) of patients having type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Ivica Petrovic, Sara Petrovic, Katarina Vujanac, Marina Petrovic and Zorica Lazic
. Effects of insulin on body composition in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabet Med. 1996 Jan;13(1):40-6.
27. MacLeod KM, Hepburn DA, Frier BM. Frequency and morbidity of severe hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 1993 Apr;10(3):238-45.
28. Graveling AJ, Frier BM. Hypoglycaemia: an overview. Prim Care Diabetes. 2009 Aug;3(3):131-9.
diabetes control and complications trial. Diabetes Care . Nov 1995;18(11):1415-1427.
10. Stratton IM, Adler AI, Neil HA, et al. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study. BMJ . Aug 12 2000;321(7258): 405-412.
11. Lundkvist J, Berne C, Bolinder B, Jonsson L. The economic and quality of life impact of hypoglycemia. Eur J Health Econ . Sep 2005;6(3):197-202.
12. Vexiau P, Mavros P, Krishnarajah G, Lyu R, Yin D. Hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2
development of the child. A school nurse is one of the people who participates in the care of children with T1DM and improves the safety of children with T1DM in school ( 3 , 4 , 5 ).
School nurses should ensure a sense of psychological and physical safety, prepare other children to deal with a schoolmate with T1DM, instruct them how to help during the occurrence of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, help a child with T1DM to accept the disease, and provide them with support. The good co-operation between the child, parents and school nurse is a key part of successful
Augustyn Dolatkowski, A. Szczeblewska, Lucjan Łaba and Bogdan Łokucijewski
The authors examined 104 divers performing dives in water, 14 exposed to simulated conditions in decompression chambers and 11 control subjects. The average blood sugar reading before diving amounted to 100 mg% with readings of 101 mg% after diving, whereas in the control group these readings were 107 and 100 mg% respectively and in the group of simulated dives, 102 before and 106 mg% after the exposure. It was found that the diet applied ensured a sufficiently high level blood sugar level in the subjects to protect them against hypoglycaemia. Further research in decompression chambers is required.