Drought reduces crop yields not only in areas of arid climate. The impact of droughts depends on the crop growth stage and soil properties. The frequency of droughts will increase due to climate change. It is important to determine the environmental variables that have the strongest effect on wheat yields in dry years. The effect of soil and weather on wheat yield was evaluated in 2018, which was considered a very dry year in Europe. The winter wheat yield data from 19 trial locations of the Research Center of Cultivar Testing (COBORU), Poland, were used. Soil data from the trial locations, mean air temperature (T) and precipitation (P) were considered as environmental factors, as well as the climatic water balance (CWB). The hydrothermal coefficient (HTC), which is based on P and T, was also used. The effect of these factors on winter wheat yield was related to the weather conditions at particular growth stages. The soil had a greater effect than the weather conditions. CWB, P, T and HTC showed a clear relationship with winter wheat yield. Soil data and HTC are the factors most recommended for models predicting crop yields. In the selection of drought-tolerant genotypes, the plants should be subjected to stress especially during the heading and grain filling growth stages.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of applied nitrogen fertilizer rate on β-glucan content in oat (Avena sativa L.) grains. The study was carried out at the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute from 2011 to 2014. Three nitrogen surface fertiliser treatments (80, 120 and 160 kg·ha-1) were applied on one husked oat (variety 'Lizete') and two naked oat genotypes (breeding lines 'S-156' and '33793'). The content of β-glucan in naked oat genotypes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than in the husked genotype. The difference in β-glucan content between the naked breeding lines was not significant (p > 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) differences in β-glucan content were observed between nitrogen treatments only for husked oat genotype 'Lizete'. Effect of growing season on β-glucan content was significant (p < 0.05) for both (naked and husked) oat genotypes. β-glucan content of naked oat breeding lines ('S-156' and '33793') was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in 2011 comparing with 2012 and 2013, due to differences in precipitation during the grain filling period.
iakowska E., G ąsiorek E., 2017. Assessment of meteorological drought in 2015 for North Central part of Poland using hydrothermalcoefficient (HTC) in the context of climate change. Infrastructure and Ecology of Rural Areas I(2), 257-273. Ł abędzki L., 2009. Foreseen climate changes and irrigation development in Poland. Infrastructure and Ecology of Rural Areas 3, 7-18. Ł abędzki L., B ąk B., L iszewska M., 2013. Wpływ przewidywanej zmiany klimatu na zapotrzebowanie ziemniaka późnego na wodę. Infrastructure and Ecology of Rural Areas 2(I), 155-165. N urzyńska -W
was performed at the National Chemical-Agricultural Station in Warsaw. Sielianinov’s hydrothermalcoefficient [ Skowera and Puła 2004 ] ( Table 2 ) showed changing weather conditions during the growing seasons of the experiment. In the first year of the experiment (2012), the optimal weather conditions and optimal soil moisture were observed only in June and October, with drought to extreme drought throughout the rest of the season. In the next experimental years, dry periods were followed by wet ones, with the best conditions only in April 2013, July 2013, and