Katharina Gröbner, Wolfgang Gadermayr, Giorgio Höfer-Öllinger, Harald Huemer and Christoph Spötl
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T umare J., J ana S.K., P al D.K. 2014
The lysimeter is most often defined as a box filled with soil with an intact structure for measuring the amount of infiltration and evapotranspiration in natural conditions. At the bottom of the device there is an outflow for atmospheric precipitation water infiltrating to a measuring container. Lysimeter studies are included in the group of dynamic leaching tests in which the leaching solution is added in a specified volume over a specific period of time. Lysimeter studies find applications in, amongst others, agrotechnics, hydrogeology and geochemistry. Lysimeter tests may vary in terms of the type of soil used (anthropogenic soil, natural soil), sample size, leaching solution, duration of the research and the purpose for conducting it. Lysimeter experiments provide more accurate results for leaching tests compared with static leaching tests. Unlike several-day tests, they should last for at least a year. There are about 2,500 lysimeters installed in nearly 200 stations around Europe. The vast majority of these (84%) are non-weighing lysimeters. There are a few challenges for lysimeter research mostly connected with the construction of the lysimeter, estimating leaching results and calibrating numerical transport models with data obtained from lysimeters. This review is devoted to the analysis of the principal types of lysimeters described in the literature within the context of their application. The aim of this study is to highlight the role of lysimeters in leaching studies.
Kamil Juśko, Jacek Motyka, Kajetan d’Obyrn and Zbigniew Adamczyk
hydrogeological properties of Triassic rocks in the Olkusz ore mines ]. Rozprawa doktorska [PhD Thesis], AGH, Kraków.
Motyka, J., 1998. A conceptual model of hydraulic networks in carbonate rocks, illustrated by examples from Poland. Hydrogeology Journal 6, 469–482.
Motyka, J. & Różkowski, K., 2003. Wstępne wyniki badań wpływu ucieczek wody z Białej Przemszy na zawodnienie kopalń rud cynku i ołowiu „Pomorzany” (południowa Polska) [Preliminary research results of the consequences of water outflow from Biala Przemsza river on the total inflow to the Zn-Pb mine
the Interpretation of Vertical Electrical Soundings. Pure Appl. Geophys., 164 , 2291–2311, doi: 10.1007/s00024-007-0274-8.
Asfahani J., 2010a: Application of surfacial geoelectrical resistivity technique in hydrogeology domain for characterizing saline groundwater in semi arid regions. In: Benjamin Veress, Jozsi Szigethy (Eds.), Horizons in earth science research series. NOVA Science Publishers, New York, 1 , 351–381.
Asfahani J., 2010b: Electrresistivity investigations for guiding and controlling fresh water well drilling in semi arid region in
Ryszard Hoc, Andrzej Sadurski and Zenon Wiśniowski
protection ]. Unpublished, Polish Geological Institute, Warszawa.
Paczyński, B. & Sadurski, A. (Eds), 2007. Hydrogeologia regionalna Polski [ Regional hydrogeology of Poland ]. Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa, 106 pp.
Wiśniowski, Z., 2012. Dokumentacja geologiczna otworu wiertniczego dla sieci obserwacji hydrogeologicznych Polskiej Służby Hydrogeologicznej [ Geological documentation of drilling hole for the hydrogeological observation network of Polish Hydrogeological Survey ]. Unpublished, Polish Geological Institute, Warszawa.
The analytic element method (AEM) has been successfully used in practice worldwide for many years. This method provides the possibility of fast preliminary quantitative analysis of the hydrogeological systems or boundary conditions of the numerical models, as it is shown in the case study of groundwater source of the city of Vrbas. The AEM is also applicable for the initial analysis of a hydrogeological system, which is of particular importance in case of excess pollution that cannot be predicted where it could happen. One example of the application of the AEM is presented in this article. The analytical model is calibrated based on the measured data from several drilled monitoring wells, and this was the base for the numerical model of the contaminant transport. In this case, the AEM enabled the quick access to information on the hydrogeological system and effective response to excess pollution.
Arnošt Grmela, Petr Žůrek, Radovan Kukutsch and Robert Kořínek
The Jeroným Mine, situated in the locality of the Slavkovský les Protected Landscape Area, is a unique heritage site associated with mining in the 15th and 16th centuries. To make this mine working accessible to the public, it is necessary in the first place to stabilize underground voids and to ensure such internal microclimatic conditions so that any degradation of the mine working and any hazard to workers performing restoration operations and later to visitors will not occur. The contribution deals with the factors conditioning and affecting the stability of this system of mine workings.
Several methods have been used to determine trends in hydrogeochemical elements. This study is concerned with the ordinary 3-period moving averages, the 3-period moving median and the exponential smoothing method. It has taken into account the chloride concentration in groundwater from the region of the landfill of the Katowice Ironworks (southern Poland). The data from two piezometers were used: T1 screened in the Triassic and Q1 screened in the Quaternary aquifers. The main aim of this article was to compare statistical methods and to choose the most appropriate method for an assessment of the impact of pollution sources on groundwater quality and determining any trends. The choice of chlorides as the analyzed indicator is connected with their chemical conservative character. They are also indicators of negative impact on groundwater of e.g. municipal, metallurgical landfill sites on groundwater. Results showed that the moving median is less sensitive to outliers than the moving average. The running median preserves sharp discontinuities in the signal but the biggest smoothing was observed in the case of exponential smoothing. All of these methods filter out the noise and transform the data into a smooth curve, which is unbiased by outliers. Application of the smoothing method allowed the generalization of the monitoring data which clearly showed trends. In the absence of reliable data for short periods, these statistical methods made it possible to fill in missing values. These methods are easier to calculate than regression models even if they ignore complex relationships in the data. Moreover, they can also be used as a component in many other indicators such as the Moving Average Convergence Divergence.
, M., 1999. Scale problem in hydrogeology. Bulletin of Polish Geological Institute 388, 179-190.
Peszyńska, M. & Trykozko, A., 2013. Pore-to-core simulations of flow with large velocities using continuum models and imaging data. Computational Geoscience 17, 623–645.
Trykozko, A., 2007. Computational aspects of up-scaling in heterogeneous porous media. Workshop: Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Multiscale Nonlinear Systems , Oregon State University, USA.
Trykozko, A., 2010. Downscaling: fine-scale conductivity identification by inverse