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Magnetic recykling of complex catalysts immobilized on thiol-functionalized polymer supports

Abstract

In this work, the application of the thiol-functionalized epoxy resin encapsulated on magnetic core as supports for palladium catalysts is reported. The study focuses on obtaining of heterogeneous catalysts which can be separated by magnetic field. Palladium complex catalyst [PdCl2(PhCN)2] has been heterogenized by anchoring to these supports via ligand exchange reaction. The characterization of polymeric supports and heterogenized palladium catalysts has involved research methods like time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen BET surface area measurements. The activity and stability during long-term use of the investigated catalytic systems were tested in a Heck and hydrogenation reaction. The influence of the type of thiols used as epoxy hardeners and the morphology of the supports on the catalytic properties of epoxy-supported palladium catalysts was discussed.

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Carbon Sequestration: Hydrogenation of CO2 to Formic Acid

Abstract

The concentration CO2 gas has become a great worldwide challenge because CO2 is considered as an important counterpart of greenhouse gases. The tremendous increase in the concentration of CO2 gas, elevated the worldwide temperature as well as it altered the climatic changes. Various physiochemical approached have been reported to trap the CO2 gas and the chemical conversion of CO2 to useful chemicals is one of them. This review covers the conversion of CO2 gas to formic acid. In this CO2 hydrogenation reaction, both the homogeneous as well as heterogeneous catalytic systems were discussed along with the effect of solvent systems on reaction kinetics.

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Metal impregnated catalysts for bioethanol conversion tested by n-hexane cracking

Abstract

The catalytic activity of catalysts for bioethanol conversion to hydrocarbons was tested by cracking nhexane in a glass microreactor in the temperature range of 623 to 823K. The microreactor is a tubular one with axial thermocuple measurements in flow, initially for some experiments in nitrogen and for others by hydrogen. Reaction products were collected and analyzed as gaseous samples by Gas Chromatography. The samples of Me-ZSM-5 zeolites (Me=Fe, La, Ce) were prepared by impregnation method. All the prepared samples had a metal content of approximate to 3 % wt. ZSM-5 zeolite was synthesized by using a structure direct agent, namely tetrapropylammonium hydroxide (TPAOH) and hydrothermal crystallisation method under alkaline conditions according to reported procedures.

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Catalytic hydrogenation in the process of 2-((1-benzylpiperidin-4-yl) methyl)-5,6-dimethoxy-2,3-dihydroinden-1-one hydrochloride synthesis I. Catalyst screening and finding the optimal reaction conditions

liquid-phase hydrogenation reaction over supported metal catalysts. Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 213, 1-24. DOI: 10.1016/S0926-860X(00)00885-1. 16. Cerveny, L. & Ruzicka, V.; Catal. Rev.-Sci.Eng. 1982, 24 , 503-566. 17. Bakker, J.J.W., Van der Neut, A.G., Kreutzer, M.T., Moulijin, J.A. & Kapteijn, F. (2010). Catalyst performance changes induced by palladium phase transformation in the hydrogenation of benzonitrile. J. Catal. 274, 176-191. DOI: 10.1016/j.cat.2010.06.013. 18. Bernas, H., Taskinen, A., Wärnå, J. & Murzin, Y

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The effect of preparation method on the performance of PtSn/Al2O3 catalysts for acetic acid hydrogenation

: 10.1016/j. fuel.2005.08.035. 9. Aly, M. & Baumgarten, E. (2001). Hydrogenation of hexanoic acid with different catalysts. Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 210, 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/S0926-860X(00)00791-2. 10. Turek, T., Trim D.L. & Cant, N.W. (1994). The Catalytic hydrogenolysis of esters to alcohols. Catal. Rev. 36(4), 645-683. DOI: 10.1080/01614949408013931. 11. Rao, R., Dandekar, A., Baker, R.T.K. & Vannice, M.A. (1997). P roperties of copper chromite catalysts in hydrogenation reactions. J. Catal. 171, 406-419. DOI: 10.1006/jcat

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Kinetics studies and mechanism evolution of the epoxidation of styrene over nanoporous Au doped TS-1

., Huizinga, B. T. & Makkee, J. A. (1999). Direct Epoxidation of Propene Using Gold Dispersed on TS-1 and Other Titanium-Containing Supports. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38, 884-891. DOI: 10.1021/ie980494x. Yadav, G. D. & Pujari, A. (2000). Epoxidation of Styrene to Styrene Oxide: Synergism of Heteropoly Acid and Phase-Transfer Catalyst under Ishii-Venturello Mechanism. Org. Proc. Res. & Dev. 4, 88-93. DOI: 10.1021/op990055p. Singh, U. K. & Vannice, M. A. (2001). Kinetics of liquid-phase hydrogenation reactions over supported

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Ionic [Ru] complex with recyclability by electro-adsorption for efficient catalytic transfer hydrogenation of aryl ketones

–4655. DOI: 10.1021/cr9003924. 14. Polshettiwar, V., Luque, R., Fihri, A., Zhu, H., Bouhrara, M. & Basset, J.M. (2011). Magnetically recoverable nano-catalysts. Chem.Rev. 111, 3036–3075. DOI: 10.1021/cr100230z. 15. Fernandez, F.E., Puerta, M.C. & Valerga, P. (2011). Half-sandwich Ruthenium(II) picolyl-NHC complexes: synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenation reactions. Organometallics 30, 5793–5802. DOI: 10.1021/om200665f. 16. Pan, S.G., Matsuo, Y., Endo, K. & Shibata, T. (2012). Cationic iridium

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