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References AUBERT M., BUREAU F., 2018, Forest humus forms as a playground for studying aboveground-belowground relationships: Part 1, theoretical backgrounds. Applied Soil Ecology. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.09.004 . BADA, J.L., LAZCANO, A., 2002, Some Like It Hot, But Not the First Biomolecules. Science, 14, 296 (5575): 1982–1983. DOI:10.1126/science.1069487. BALESTRINI R., LUMINI E., 2018, Focus on mycorrhizal symbioses. Applied Soil Ecology, 123. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.09.001 . BARDGETT R.D., VAN DER PUTTEN W.H., 2014

G., Englisch M., van Delf B., de Waal R., Le Bayon R.C., 2013. A proposal for including humus forms in the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB-FAO). Geoderma 192: 286–294. Klimaszewski M., 1996. Geomorfologia. [In:] Mirek Z. (ed.) Przyroda Tatrzańskiego Parku Narodowego. Tatrzański Park Narodowy, Zakopane: 97–124 (in Polish with English abstract). Komornicki T., 1977. Tatrzańskie rędziny strefy leśnej. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 28(1): 277–291 (in Polish with English abstract). Komornicki T., Adamczyk B., Firek A., Jakubiec J., Niemyska

Abstract

Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) is one of the most important introduced tree species in the Czech Republic, occupying about 6,000 ha with ca. 900,000 m3 of the standing volume. The presented study aims to evaluate its soil forming effects on natural oak sites. Soil chemistry of the upper soil layers (F+H, Ah, B horizons) was studied in three pairs of stands of both species. In each stand, four bulk samples were taken separately for particular horizons, each consisting of 5 soil-borer cores. The soil characteristics analysed were: pH (active and potential), soil adsorption complex characteristics (content of bases, exchangeable cation capacity, base saturation), exchangeable acidity (exchangeable Al and H), total carbon and nitrogen content, and plant available nutrients content (P, K, Ca, Mg). Total macronutrient content (P, K, Ca, Mg) was analysed only in holorganic horizons. Results confirmed acidification effects of red oak on the upper forest soil layers such as decreased pH, base content, base saturation, all nutrient contents in total as well as plant-available form and increased soil exchangeable acidity (exchangeable Al) in comparison to the sessile oak stands, especially in holorganic horizons and in the uppermost mineral layer (Ah horizon). Northern red oak can be considered as a slightly site-soil degrading species in the studied sites and environmental conditions in comparison to native oak species.

References Ampe, C., Langohr, R., 2003: Morphological characterisation of humus forms in recent coastal dune ecosystems in Belgium and Northern France. Catena, 54:363-383. Campbell, C. G., Garrido, F., Ghodrati, M., 2004: Role of leaf litter in initiating tracer transport pathways in a woodland hillslope soil. Soil Science, 169:100-114. Dunkerley, D., 2015: Percolation through leaf litter: What happens during rainfall events of varying intensity? Journal of Hydrology, 525:737-746. Ewing, R. P., Horton, R., 1999: Discriminating dyes in soil with colour image

nitrogen newly immobilized: I. Effect of Temperature on Immobilization and Release of Nitrogen in Soil. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 15:207–213. Kirk, P. L., 1950: Kjeldahl Method for Total Nitrogen. Analytical Chemistry, 22:354–358. Klimo, E., Vavříček, D., 1991: Acidifikace a vápnění lesních půd v Beskydech. Lesnictví – Forestry, 37: 61–72. Klinka, K., Wang, Q., Carter, R. E., 1990: Relationships Among Humus Forms, Forest Floor Nutrient Properties, and Understory Vegetation. Forest Science, 36:564–581. Kreutzer, K., 1995: Effects of forest soil liming on soil

Reference Base for Humus Forms: Proposal for a morpho-functional classification. [WWW document]. - URL http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/54/14/96/PDF/Humus_Forms_ERB.pdf

References Andreetta, A., Macci, C., Giansoldati, V., Masciandaro, G., Carnicelli, S. 2013. Microbial activity and organic matter composition in Mediterranean humus forms. - Geoderma, 209, 198-208. Bao, S.D. 2000. Soil Agricultural Chemistry Analysis. Beijing, Chinese Agriculture Press. Berg, B., McClaugherty, C. 2008. Plant Litter: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Dang, Y.A., Li, S.Q., Wang, G.D. 2012. Distribution characteristics of humus fraction in soil profi le for the typical regions in the Loess Plateau. - Acta Ecologica Sinica, 32, 1820-1829. Descheemaeker, K

. Leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) in mor humus as affected by temperature and pH. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 1–10. Andreetta A., Cecchini G., Carnicelli S., 2017. Forest humus forms in Italy: A research approach. Applied Soil Ecology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.09.029 Andreux F., 1996. Humus in world soils. [In:] Humic Substances in Terrestrial Ecosystems (Piccolo A., Editor). Elsevier, Amsterdam: 45–100. Augusto L., Bonnaud P., Ranger J., 1998. Impact of tree species on forest soil acidification. Forest

productivity of coastal Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.]) provenances. Forest Ecology and Management, 302:133–143. Green, R. N., Trowbridge, R. L., Klinka, K., 1993: Towards a taxonomic classification of humus forms. Forest Science, 39:1–49. Hart, V., Hartová, M., Tauchman, P., 2010: Analysis of herbicide effects on Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) natural regeneration. Journal of Forest Science, 56:209–217. Kantor, P., Bušina, F., Knott, R., 2010: Postavení doug-lasky tisolisté ( Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) a její přirozená obnova

References Andreetta, A., Macci, C., Giansoldati, V., Masciandaro, G., Carnicelli, S. (2013). Microbial activity and organic matter composition in Mediterranean humus forms. Geoderma , 209 , 198-208. Bailly, C., El-Maarouf-Bouteau, H., Corbineau, F. (2008). From intracellular signaling networks to cell death: the dual role of reactive oxygen species in seed physiology. Comptes Rendus Biologies , 331 , 806-814. Biały, M. (2013). Preparaty poprawiające żyzność gleb . Obtained from: http://rolnictwo.com.pl/preparaty-poprawiajace-zyznosc-gleb,n8640.html