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Abstract

One of the most essential parameters limiting the potential use of the ecosystem (soil, water) is the content of the organic matter. The natural organic matter (NOM) is a ubiquitous component of the lithosphere and hydrosphere that constitutes one of the largest reservoirs of the carbon in the environment. Natural organic substances play several important functions in ecosystems and they are necessary for their normal functioning. Despite many years of the research and using many advanced analytical techniques, their structure has not been fully explained. The main aim of this review is to present the actual state of the knowledge about the natural organic matter and provide a comprehensive overview of the research that has explored up to date in this matter. The additional attention was focused on the relations within and between humic and fulvic acids in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Special attention is focused on the analytical methods used to analysis natural organic matter

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, pH = 1.80) of a measured portion of the 0.1 M NaOH extract. After precipitation and sedimentation of humic acids (24 h) in the solution of fulvic acids, the carbon content was determined using the oxidation-titration method. Humic acid fraction C HA Calculated from the following equation: C HA = C HS − C FA {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{HA}}}} = {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{HS}}}} - {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{FA}}}} Residual (humin) fraction C HUMIN Calculated from the following equation: C RES = TC − ( C DEC + C BIT + C HS ) {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{RES}}}} = {\rm{TC}} - \left( {{{\rm

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.biortech.2013.12.022. WEI, Y. – LI, J. – SHI, D. – LIU, G. – ZHAO, Y. – SHIMAOKA, T. 2017. Environmental challenges impeding the composting of biodegradable municipal solid waste: A critical review. In Resource, Conservation & Recycling , vol. 122, pp. 51–65. DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.024. WEI, Y. – ZHAO, Y. – ZHAO, X. – GAO, X. – ZHENG, Y. – ZUO, H. – WEI, Z. 2020. Roles of different humin and heavy-metal resistant bacteria from composting on heavy metal removal. In Bioresource Technology , vol. 296 , 122375. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122375. WEI, Z. – XI, B

greater overall mineralization. Sediments containing higher amounts of OM are generally characterized by higher pH values due to the presence of humins. In the Younger Dryas, a cooler period, the vegetation cover may have thinned out again ( Noryśkiewicz 2012 ) and rinsing again became more significant. Other researchers have also indicated this type of relationship ( Paluszkiewicz 2009 , 2011, 2014, 2016; Tylman 2011 ; Majewski 2013 ). During the Holocene, the analysed valleys were only slightly transformed by rinsing (water erosion), denudation and mass movements