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One of the most essential parameters limiting the potential use of the ecosystem (soil, water) is the content of the organic matter. The natural organic matter (NOM) is a ubiquitous component of the lithosphere and hydrosphere that constitutes one of the largest reservoirs of the carbon in the environment. Natural organic substances play several important functions in ecosystems and they are necessary for their normal functioning. Despite many years of the research and using many advanced analytical techniques, their structure has not been fully explained. The main aim of this review is to present the actual state of the knowledge about the natural organic matter and provide a comprehensive overview of the research that has explored up to date in this matter. The additional attention was focused on the relations within and between humic and fulvic acids in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Special attention is focused on the analytical methods used to analysis natural organic matter

J.J., ALEXANDER M. 1999. Correlation between biological and physical availabilities of phenanthrene in soils and soil humin in aging experiments. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 18, 8: 1720-1727. XIAOLI C., GUIXIANG L., XIN Z., YONGXIA H., YOUCAI Z. 2012. Complexion between mercury and humic substances from different landfill stabilization process and its implication for the environment. Journal of Hazardous Materials 209-210: 59-66. ZAWADZKI S. 1999. Gleboznawstwo. PWRiL. Warszawa.

degradation stages of charred residues from lignocellulosic biomass; J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (2001) 1128–1131. 4. Lichtfouse, E., C. Leblond, M. Da Silva, and F. Behar: Occurrence of biomarkers and straight-chain bio-polymers in humin: Implications for the origin of soil organic matter; Naturwiss. 85 (1998) 497–501. 5. Dungait, J. A. J., N. A. Stair, B. E. van Dongen, R. Bol, and R. P. Evershed: Off-line pyrolysis and compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of lignin moieties: A new method for determining the fate of lignin residues in soil; Rapid Commun. Mass

, pH = 1.80) of a measured portion of the 0.1 M NaOH extract. After precipitation and sedimentation of humic acids (24 h) in the solution of fulvic acids, the carbon content was determined using the oxidation-titration method. Humic acid fraction C HA Calculated from the following equation: C HA = C HS − C FA {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{HA}}}} = {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{HS}}}} - {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{FA}}}} Residual (humin) fraction C HUMIN Calculated from the following equation: C RES = TC − ( C DEC + C BIT + C HS ) {{\rm{C}}_{{\rm{RES}}}} = {\rm{TC}} - \left( {{{\rm

Water Resource and Hydraulic Engineering , 4, 1, p. 105-110. LIU, X.; RYAN, D.K. (1997): Analysis of Fulvic acids using HPLC/UV coupled to FT.IR Spectroscopy. Environmental Technology , 18. p 417-424. NAIDJA, A.; HUANG, P.M.; ANDERSON, W.; KESSEL, C. (2002): Fourier Transform Infrared, UV-Visible, and X-ray Diffraction Analyses of Organic Matter in Humin, Humic Acid, and Fulvic Acid Fractions in Soil Exposed to Elevated CO 2 and N Fertilization. Applied Spectroscopy , 56, 3. PARIS, O.; ZOLLFRANK, C.; ZICKLER, G.A. (2005): Decomposition and carbonisation of wood

Soil Science and Plant Analysis 37: 2769–2778. DOI: 10.1080/00103620600832167. Patil R. 2010. Effect of potassium humate and depro-teinised juice (DPJ) on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat and jowar. Annals of Biological Research 1: 148–151. Pettit R.E. 2004. Organic matter, humus, humate, humic acid, fulvic acid and humin: their importance in soil fertility and plant health. CTI Research, 15 p. Sarir M.S., Sharif M., Zeb A., Akhlaq M. 2005. Influence of different levels of humic acid application by various methods on the yield and yield components of

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.biortech.2013.12.022. WEI, Y. – LI, J. – SHI, D. – LIU, G. – ZHAO, Y. – SHIMAOKA, T. 2017. Environmental challenges impeding the composting of biodegradable municipal solid waste: A critical review. In Resource, Conservation & Recycling , vol. 122, pp. 51–65. DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.024. WEI, Y. – ZHAO, Y. – ZHAO, X. – GAO, X. – ZHENG, Y. – ZUO, H. – WEI, Z. 2020. Roles of different humin and heavy-metal resistant bacteria from composting on heavy metal removal. In Bioresource Technology , vol. 296 , 122375. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122375. WEI, Z. – XI, B

greater overall mineralization. Sediments containing higher amounts of OM are generally characterized by higher pH values due to the presence of humins. In the Younger Dryas, a cooler period, the vegetation cover may have thinned out again ( Noryśkiewicz 2012 ) and rinsing again became more significant. Other researchers have also indicated this type of relationship ( Paluszkiewicz 2009 , 2011, 2014, 2016; Tylman 2011 ; Majewski 2013 ). During the Holocene, the analysed valleys were only slightly transformed by rinsing (water erosion), denudation and mass movements