Effectiveness of Removal of Humic Substances and Heavy Metals from Landfill Leachates During their Pretreatment Process in the SBR Reactor
In the paper the removal efficiency of heavy metals as well as humic compounds, in the treatment of leachate mixed with municipal waste in a sequencing batch reactor was studied. Also, the accumulation of those metals in the activated sludge was examined. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of contamination with humic compounds, for Bx ranging from 0.23 to 0.45 mg COD mg-1 d.m. can reach 71÷74%. An increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the activated sludge was recorded for Bx in the range 0.23÷1.64 mg COD mg-1 d.m. The amount of heavy metals in the effluent of the SBR in carrying out the process at Bx = 0.23÷0.96 mg COD mg-1 d.m. does not limit their discharge into water and sewer system.
Krzysztof Gondek, Agnieszka Baran, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek and Michał Kopeć
The aim of the research was to evaluate the effect of temperature during the treatment process as well as the effect of adding plant materials to sewage sludge on selected chemical properties and Vibrio fischeri response. The mixtures were placed in a chamber furnace, under airless conditions. Two temperature procedures were applied: 300 and 600ºC; the exposure time in both cases was 15 minutes. Thermal treatment of sewage sludge without a plant component is not well-founded and may cause an increase in concentration of trace elements. Using the temperature of 300ºC caused significantly lower changes in the contents of total forms of trace elements than using the temperature of 600ºC. The metals extracted from the studied mixtures were not toxic for the Vibrio fischeri. In the case of the fractional composition of humic compounds, thermal treatment of mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials is not beneficial in terms of labile fractions, but it had a beneficial effect on stabilizing the durable bonds between C compounds in those mixtures.
Paulina B. Nowicka-Krawczyk and Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek
Woronichinia Elenkin is a cyanobacteria genus characteristic of lentic ecosystems. The type species, W. naegeliana (Unger) Elenkin, often blooms in the plankton of eutrophic reservoirs but this genus also contains species sensitive to high nutrient concentrations. The study analyzed the diversity and biomass of Woronichinia in lakes in a national park, isolated from the direct impact of human activity. The lakes were in various trophic states resulting from gradual and natural changes of trophy. Trophy was assessed with the use of the trophic diatom index, according to the classification we proposed for natural lakes. The relationship between the biomass and the trophic state of lakes was investigated with the use of multivariate unconstrained analysis with supplementary variables. Five species of Woronichinia were identified in all trophic types of lakes except for two oligotrophic ones: W. compacta (Lemmerm.) Komárek & Hindák, W. delicatula (Skuja) Komárek & Hindák, W. karelica Komárek & Komárk.-Legn., W. obtusa Joosten and W. naegeliana (Unger) Elenkin. The occurrence and biomass of the species were related to the trophic state of the lakes. The absence of Woronichinia in two oligotrophic lakes could be due to the high concentration of humic compounds in the sediments. The low nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratio characteristic of the oligo-mesotrophic lakes resulted in increased species diversity. The lakes’ isolation from human activity fostered the development of rare and sensitive species such as W. delicatula and W. karelica.
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, Adani et al. (2007) could confirm a shift of carbon fraction after compost application on silty clay towards a higher proportion of humified carbon compounds compared to non-humiccompounds. Using the different relations of RI and BAS in the Ss and Ut3, it can be stated that in both soils the wettability is reduced by digestate and compost. This decline is not statistically significant, but can be regarded as a trend. Already in the study of Voelkner et al. (2014) , a significant reduction of the wettability in both loamy and sandy soils after addition of different