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For and Against: Analysing the Determinants of Humanitarian Intervention. Libya (2011) and Syria (2011–2013) Compared

References Abboud S. (2016). Syria . Cambridge: Polity Press. Allison R. (2013). ‘Russia and Syria: explaining alignment with a regime in crisis’. International Aff airs . Vol. 89, No. 4, 795–823. Averre D. and Davies L. (2015). ‘Russia, humanitarian intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: the case of Syria’. International Aff airs . Vol. 91, No. 4, 813–834. Berman D. and Michaelsen C. (2012). ‘Intervention in Libya: Another Nail in the Coffin for the Responsibility-to-Protect?’. International Community Law Review . Vol. 44, No

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A Poggean Reform Agenda for Improving Political Will in Response to Mass Atrocities

References Acemoglu, D. – Johnson, S. (2007): Disease and Development: The Effect of Life Expectancy on Economic Growth. Journal of Political Economy 115(6): 925–985 Acemoglu, D. – Johnson, S. – Robinson, J. (2003): Disease and Development in Historical Perspective. Journal of the European Economic Association 1(2–3):397–405 Adelman, H. (2002): Theory and Humanitarian Intervention, in Keren, M. – Sylvan, D.A., eds, International Intervention: Sovereignty versus Responsibility . Frank Cass Publishing: Cornwall. Anderson, M.B. (1998

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Non-Military Intervention Through Sanctions

Abstract

Humanitarian intervention has been perceived as one of the most debatable points between diplomats, jurists and scientists for a long time. It is also a very complex and multifaceted issue, which incorporates a number of ethical, international and military aspects. At the present time the topic of humanitarian intervention is seen primarily in terms of the application of military forces in order to achieve a specific aim, which may only in certain cases be humanitarian. However, the relevant nonmilitary intervention, expressed in a variety of sanctions, should also be considered.

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Responsibility to Protect and Human Security: Doctrines Destroying or Strengthening the Sovereignty?

, Principles of the Law of Nature, applied to the Conduct and Affairs of Nations and Sovereigns, with Three Early Essays on the Origin and Nature of Natural Law and on Luxory [1797] Ed. WHATMOTE, Richard, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2008 European Union Newsroom, EU sanctions against Russia over Ukraine Crisis, 18 January 2017. [online] Available at:< https://europa.eu/newsroom/highlights/special-coverage/eu-sanctions-against-russia-over-ukraine-crisis_en > Accessed: 16.02.2018. EVANS, Gareth. The Responsibility to Protect: Rethinking Humanitarian Intervention

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Turkey’s Security Dilemma on the Border with Syria: Situation Assessment and Perspectives of the Intervention

Abstract

Employing the concept of the security dilemma, the article aims to assess the situation on the Turkey-Syria border and discusses perspectives of Turkey’s humanitarian intervention in northern Syria. In the first section of the article an analysis of Turkey’s foreign policy and its implications on Syria’s crisis is provided. The second section deals with arguments for and against the intervention. Later on, international law and military provisions are discussed as well as the possible implications of an intervention. The main thesis of this article is that if Turkey chose to solve its security dilemma by means of a humanitarian intervention, the UN Security Council’s approval would greatly enhance the chances of its success. Otherwise, unilateral intervention could even further diminish the possibility of finding a faster solution to the Syrian crisis and regional peace and stability in general.

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The Rhetorical State of Alert before the Iraq War 2003

Abstract

Initiating an attack on another country is always a questionable venture, whether one chooses to call it war or prefers euphemisms such as conflict, incident, action or peacecreating measures. This study examines how the arguments were developed prior to the military actions in Iraq 2003. The events have been presented in vague and often distorted value terms and metaphors where war becomes peace, attacks becomes ‘pre-emptive defence’, military invasion becomes ‘change of regime’, occupation becomes ‘humanitarian intervention’.This study provides a diachronic survey of the chain of events from rhetorical perspectives, as well as a synchronic analysis of recurring rhetorical themes - especially of vague concepts and metaphors.

Manipulation and lies has of course always been a basic ingredient of warfare. The question is what approach democratic societies should take in relation to self-evidently deceptive influencing of public opinion; to manipulative rhetoric and destructive propaganda.

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Possession of nuclear weapons – between legality and legitimization

Summary

Recently in Russian policy there was a return to the Cold War practices, which include, inter alia, nuclear deterrence, and even threatening to use nuclear weapons. That policy, however, is carried out in the changed international space compared with the times of the Cold War. The period of detente in relations between world powers was dominated inter alia by discussion on the humanitarian intervention. Human rights, tied to the value of justice, become the most important component of international order. Thus, justice has become the value of the international legal order equivalent to peace. In such a reality, the legitimacy of nuclear weapons should be based not only on the deterrence, but also on the need to protect human rights, tied with justice. Possession of nuclear weapons per se is contrary to this value. This fact should be taken into account in the world powers’ policies. Banning nuclear weapons, in accordance with the Radbruch formula, should be a result of these policies.

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An Awkward Situation: Kosovo, the EU and EU Member States

: Struggling with Uncertainty’ (2005) 9 Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law. Greenwood C, ‘Humanitarian Intervention: the Case of Kosovo’ (1999) X FYIL. Hall WE, A Treatise on International Law (Oxford 1909). Klabbers J, An Introduction to International Institutional Law (Cambridge 2007). Kolasa J, ‘Odzyskanie przez Polskę niepodległości w 1918 r. w świetle prawa międzynarodowego’ (2008) 5 (88) Przegląd Sejmowy. Koutrakos P, EU International Relations Law (Oxford 2006). Lauterpacht H, Recognition in International Law (Oxford

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The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

Abstract

Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis), it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

With a comparative approach, the paper analyzes the response of the international organizations in terms of the strategies they have applied along the Balkan human corridor and their new innovative approaches used in terms of the coordination with the local authorities and governments of the Balkan route. Different to previous forms of humanitarian interventions and dynamics of the refugee crisis (dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1990s), the roles of the international organizations along the Balkan human corridor following the Syrian war of 2015 and 2016 have shaped many innovative dimensions, including firstly their advising orientation and support for refugees and local authorities (mainly through providing help on legal issues). Apart from humanitarian activities for delivering direct aid, the major intergovernmental organizations (most of them operating under the umbrella of the UN) following the implementation of border controls from very beginning of the refugee crisis have been focused in supporting the local authorities as well as on regulating the flow of migrants. The strategies of response by the international organizations in the latest case of the Balkan human corridor notably shifted from the classical humanitarian dimension of their reactions. These strategies have played as well an important role in advising, and especially in developing a partnership with the local authorities capacity building and legal support for both local institutions and refugees. However, through the comparative approaches the paper identifies that there are different models of management roles played by the specialized international organizations in various countries of the Balkan route and its frontiers.

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Intra-State Violence In D.R. Congo And Features Of The ‘New War’ Scenarios

Bystander to Genocide: International Society and the Rwandan Genocide of 1994”, in Nicholas Wheeler, Saving Strangers. Humanitarian Intervention in International Society , Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2000, p. 237 [13] http://www.refworld.org/docid/4a54bc040.html [14] Carayannis; Weiss, op. cit. , p. 258 [15] Guy Arnold, Historical Dictionary of Civil Wars in Africa , The Scarecrow Press, 2008, p. 414 [16] Carayannis; Weiss, op. cit. , p. 261 [17] Arnold, op. cit. , p. 98 [18] Ibidem [19] Carayannis; Weiss, op. cit

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