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Geographic Record of Human Impact Conformance to Different Water Relationships Along a Coastal River (The Łupawa Catchment)
The purpose of this paper is to answer the following two questions: Can one infer the type of human impact found in the northern Pomorze region from the current state of the Łupawa basin? Did regional water relationships determine the type of human impact found in the area? A good place to search for an answer to these two questions is the Łupawa River drainage basin. The entire upper section of the river, upstream from the Bukowina, is characterized by a lack of substantial changes in the hydrographic network, resulting from man's apparent disinterest in the area. The middle section of the river is characterized by human impact in the form of the use of water resources for energy generation purposes (sawmills, gristmills, power plants). The lower section of the Łupawa that includes Lake Gardno is characterized by significant changes in water relationships associated with difficult discharge conditions. Finally, the mouth section of the river, given its location, has been adapted as a port facility.
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Thymallus thymallus is considered a species of significant protective importance within the Vişeu Watershed. The state of habitats characteristically inhabited by Thymallus thymallus within the Maramureş Mountains Nature Park is balanced between reduced (one third of the lotic sectors where the species was identified), average (one third) and good (one third). The excellent conservation status is currently missing for populations of this fish in the Vișeu Basin.
Human impact types identified as contributing towards the decreasing state of Thymallus thymallus habitats and therefore populations in the studied area in comparison with its natural potential are: poaching, minor riverbeds morphodynamic changings, solid and liquid natural flow changes, destruction of riparian trees and bush vegetation, habitat fragmentation/isolation of population, organic and mining pollution, and displaced fish that are washed away during flood periods in the lotic sectors uniformized by humans.
The Eudontomyzon danfordi characteristic habitats state of Maramureş Mountains Nature Park varies greatly, 19.05% are in excellent conservation status, 47.62% are in good/average status and 33.33% are in a partially degraded condition.
The identified human impact categories which induced the decreasing of Eudontomyzon danfordi species habitat state in the studied area are: poaching, minor riverbeds morphodynamic changings, liquid and solid natural flow disruption, destruction of riparian trees and bush vegetation, habitat fragmentation-fish populations isolation, and organic/mining pollution activities.
The condition of aquatic habitats typically occupied by Romanogobio uranoscopus within the Maramureş Mountains Natural Park fluctuates, in the best cases, between reduced to average. Good or excellent conservation status is now absent for populations of this species in the researched area. The identified human impact types (poaching, minor riverbeds morphodynamic changes, solid and liquid natural flow changes, destruction of the riparian vegetation and bush vegetation, habitat fragmentation/isolation of population, organic and mining pollution and displaced fish that are washed away during the periodic flooding in the lotic sectors uniformized by humans) are contributing to the diminished ecological state of Romanogobio uranoscopus habitats and for that reason populations. Romanogobio uranoscopus is now considered a rare species in the studied basin but where this species was specified as missing, it has been registered with a restorative potential.