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Leader Lies a Great Delegator. Leadership and Management in Engineering, pp. 341-343. [28] Endsley, M. R. (1995) Towards a theory of situation awareness in dynamic systems. Human Factors , 1995, 37(1), pp. 32-64. [29] Salmon, P. M., Stanton, N. A., Walker, G. H. and Jenkins, D. P. (2009) Distributed situation awareness, theory, measurement and application to teamwork. Ashgate Publishing Limited. [30] Hetherington, C., Flin, R. and Mearns, K. (2006) Safety in shipping: the human element. Journal of safety research, 37, pp. 401-411. [31] MAIB (2011) Collision between MV


Nowadays, international and national events clearly point out the need for cooperation between different defense organizations in crisis and emergency situations (disaster events, migration issues, and other emergencies) for successful tasks. The fundamental basis of this cooperation is always the command and control activity supported by modern technical equipment that ensures the coordinated implementation of tasks. The key, human element of info-communication support is the preparation and training of the successful professionals. In this paper, the authors intend to present the importance of vocational training.


The human element is the most influential resource and the one that has the greatest responsibility in the organization’s effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore, the development of human resources and their training is fundamental to achieve organizational goals. Globalization facilitates the mobility of people around the world, increasing the number and diversity of tourists in hotels, from different cultures, bringing with them different perceptions of the quality of services. This new reality has become a challenge for human resources management practices, and specifically in one of its key areas, which is training. Studies show that training has a positive impact on skills development and worker performance. Given this importance, a cultural training programme is proposed for professionals of the hospitality sector that takes cultural values into account, as well as their impact on the interaction of these professionals with clients.


With the continuous increase of international oil prices, more and more shipping companies look for new solutions to the ever present question: How to reduce operational fuel consumption and decrease air pollution. Ship route planning is an indispensable part of the ship navigation process. In the modern world, the passage planning aspect of navigation is shifting. No longer do we see mariners drawing course lines on a paper chart. No longer do they calculate distances with compasses. Elaborate algorithms on various digital devices perform all these tasks. Algorithms plot the optimum tracks on digital charts and algorithms can decide how to avoid collision situations. Nowadays charter companies do not rely solely on the experienced navigators on board their vessels to decide the best route. Instead, this task is outsourced ashore to routing and weather-routing enterprises. The algorithms used by those enterprises are continuously evolving and getting better and better. They are coming popular because of another reason – more and more the shipping society support the newly idea for using crewless ships. However, are they up to the task to eliminate the human element in passage planning? In this article, we are going to review some of the weak points of the algorithms in use.

"Guidance on the use of human element analysing process and formal safety assessment in the IMO rule making process", IMO MSC Circ. 1022, 2002 "Human element vision, principles and goals for the organization", IMO Res. A.947(23), 2004 "FSA of Bulk Carriers Fore-end Watertight Integrity", IACS 2004,

Part F No. 11, pp. 59-269, 2008. [4] Chen R. X. Bai K. Z. Liu M. R.: The CA model for traffic-flow at the grade roundabout crossing, Chinese Physics, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 1471-1476, 2006. [5] Fujii Y. Tanaka K.: Traffic capacity, Journal of Navigation Vol. 24, pp. 543-552, 1971. [6] Hetherington C. Flin R. Mearns K.: Safety in shipping: The human element, Journal of Safety Research No. 37, pp. 401-411, 2006. [7] McNab R.: SimJava: a discrete event simulation library for Java. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Available from, 1996. [8

., Wake P., Weintrit A.: E-navigation and the human element. Marine navigation and safety of sea transportation, CRC Press, London 2009 (29-34) 11. Phol C., Ganderen J.: Multi-sensor image fusion in remote sensing: concept, methods and applications. International Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol. 19, No. 5, 1998 (823-854) 12. Pietrzykowski Z.: Maritime intelligent transport systems. Communications in Computer and Information Science, series No. 104, Springer, Berlin 2011 (455-462) 13. Pietrzykowski Z., Borkowski P., Wołejsza P.: Marine integrated navigational

1/2008, pp. 53 - 60, available online at [18] Chin, W.W., Salisbury, W.D., Pearson, A.W., Stollak, M J., op. cit., p. 760 [19] Henderson, D. Cohesion. The Human Element in Combat. Leadership and Societal Influence in the Armies of the Soviet Union, the United States, North Vietnam, and Israel, National Defense University Press, Washington, DC, 1985, p. 4.

-195. Hetherington, C., Flin, R. and Mearns, K. (2006). Safety in shipping: The human element. Journal of Safety Research, 37(4), pp. 401-411. Hystad, S.W., Nielsen, M.B., and Eid, J. (2017). The impact of sleep quality, fatigue and safety climate on the perceptions of accident risk among seafarers. European Review of Applied Psychology – Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee, 67 (5), pp. 259-267. Kim, T. and Gausdal, A.,H. (2017). Leading for safety: A weighted safety leadership model in shipping. Reliability Engineering&System Safety, 165, pp. 458-466. Kongsvik, T. O

-314. Babbar, S., & Koufteros, X. (2008). The human element in airline service quality: Contact personnel and the customer. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 28(9): 804-830. Ennew, C., & Waite, N. (2007). Financial services marketing: An international guide to principles and practice. New York: Butterworth-Heinemann. Feinberg, R., & Kadam, R. (2002). E-CRM web service attributes as determinants of customer satisfaction with retail web sites. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 13(5): 432-451. Gruber, T., Szmigin, I., & Voss, R