Elvira Kalaitzaki, George Kollaros and Antonia Athanasopoulou
According to their size, aggregates are classified in coarse grained, fine grained, and fines. The determination of fines content in aggregate materials is very simple and is performed through the aggregate washing during the sieving procedure to define the gradation curve. The very fine material consists of grains having a size lower than 63 μm. The presence of fines directly influences the composition and performance of concrete and asphalt mixtures (e.g. asphalt content, elasticity, fracture). The strength and load carrying capacity of hot mix asphalt (HMA) results from the aggregate framework created through particle-particle contact and interlock. Fines or mineral filler have a role in HMA. The coarse aggregate framework is filled by the sand-sized material and finally by the mineral filler. At some point, the smallest particles lose contact becoming suspended in the binder not having the particle-particle contact that is created by the larger particles. The overall effect of mineral filler in hot mix asphalt specimens has been investigated through a series of laboratory tests. It is clear that a behaviour influenced by the adherence of fines to asphalt film has been developed. The optimum bitumen content requirement in case of stone filler is almost the same as that for fly ash. It has been found that the percentage of fly ash filler is crucial if it exceeds approximately a value of 4%.
H. A. Rondón-Quintana, J. C. Ruge-Cardenas and J. G. Bastidas-Martínez
1. S. Akbarnejad, L. J. M. Houben, A. A. A. Molenaar, “Application of aging methods to evaluate the long-term performance of road bases containing blast furnace slag materials”, Road Materials and Pavement Design 15(3): 488-506, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1080/14680629.2014.907196 .
2. H. A. Rondón, J. C. Ruge, M. Farias, “Behavior of a hotmixasphalt containing blast furnace slag as aggregate: evaluation by mass and volume substitution”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering 31(2), 2019. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943
. Jiri Vavricka; Fibres in hotmixasphalts; Diploma thesis, 2010
. CSN EN 12697-6+A1; Bituminous mixtures - Test method for hotmixasphalt-Part 6: Determination of bulk density of bituminous specimens; Czech office for standards, metrology and testing; 2007
. CSN EN 12697-26; Bituminous mixtures - Test method for hotmixasphalt-Part 26: Stiffness; Czech office for standards, metrology and testing; 2006
. CSN EN 13108-20; Bituminous mixtures - Material specifications
Mader M.: “Impact of Air Void Content on the Viscoelastic Behavior of HotMixAsphalt”, Proceedings of the 2nd Intern. Workshop on 4PBBT, University of California, CA, 2012.
. Spiegl M., Wistuba M., Lackner R. and Blab R.: “Risk assessment of lowtemperature cracking of asphalt - an experimental study”. 11th International Conference on Fracture Mechanics, Turin (Italy), 2005.
. Findley W. N., Kasif O. and Lai J.: “Creep and Relaxation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Materials”, Dover Publications Inc., 1989.
Elvira Kalaitzaki, George Kollaros and Antonia Athanasopoulou
. F.L. ROBERTS, P.S. KANDHAL, E.R. BROWN, D.Y. LEE, T.W. KENNEDY: “Hotmixasphalt materials, Mixture design, and construction”, National Asphalt Paving Association Education Foundation. Lanham, MD, 1996.
. S.S. BHOSALE: “Strength evaluation of fiber reinforced hot mixed open graded asphalt concrete”. Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Geosynthetics, September 18-22, Yokohama, Japan, pp. 801-804, 2006.
. P.S. KANDHAL, L.A. COOLEY: “The restricted zone in the Superpave aggregate
Rheometer; a simple device for measuring low-temperature rheology of asphalt binders. Journal of Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 61, 117-53, 1992.
20. A. Zofka, M. Marasteanu, X. Li, T. Clyne, J. McGraw, Simple method to obtain asphalt binders low temperature properties from asphalt mixtures properties. Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, 80, 255-82, 2005.
21. A. Zofka, I. Yut, Alternative procedure for determination of hotmixasphalt creep compliance. ASTM Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 39, 1, 1
Roberts, F. L., Kandhal, P.S., Brown, E.R., Lee, D.Y., and Kennedy, T.W. (2009). “HotMixAsphalt Materials, Mixture, Design and Construction”. National Asphalt Pavement Association Research and Educational Foundation, Lanham, Maryland, USA.
Roque, R., Birgission, B., Tia, M., and Nukunya, B. (2002). “Evaluation of Superpave Criteria for VMA and Fine Aggregate Angularity: Voids in Mineral Aggregate (VMA)”. Florida Department of Transportation Report No. WP10510865, Vol. 1 of 2.
Von Quintus, H.L. and Simpson, A.L. (2002
Cătălina Lixandru, Mihai Dicu, Carmen Răcănel and Adrian Burlacu
, preparation and implementation work. (Revised AND 605-2013);
. SR EN 13108-1 Bituminous mixtures. Material specifications. Part 1: Asphalt Concrete;
. SR EN 933-1 Tests for geometrical proprieties of aggregates. Part 1: Determination of particle size distribution - sieving method;
. SR EN 12697-12 Bituminous mixtures. Test methods for hotmixasphalt. Part 12: Determination of the water sensitivity of specimen;
. SR EN 12697-23 Bituminous mixtures. Test methods for hotmixasphalt. Part 23
Viktors Haritonovs, Guntis Brencis, Martins Zaumanis and Juris Smirnovs
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Joonho Choi, Youngguk Seo, Sung-Hee Kim and Samuel Beadles
A three Dimensional finite element model (FEM) incorporating the anisotropic properties and temperature profile of hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement was developed to predict the structural responses of HMA pavement subject to heavy loads typically encountered in the field. In this study, ABAQUS was adopted to model the stress and strain relationships within the pavement structure. The results of the model were verified using data collected from the Korean Highway Corporation Test Road (KHCTR). The results demonstrated that both the base course and surface course layers follow the anisotropic behavior and the incorporation of the temperature profile throughout the pavement has a substantial effect on the pavement response predictions that impact pavement design. The results also showed that the anisotropy level of HMA and base material can be reduced to as low as 80% and 15% as a result of repeated loading, respectively.