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PIŚMIENNICTWO/REFERENCES 1. Aftyka A, Humeniuk B, Rybojad B, Rzońca P. Style radzenia sobie ze stresem u rodziców dzieci hospitalizowanych w oddziale intensywnej terapii noworodka. [Styles of doping with stress in parents of children hospitalized in neonatal intensive care unit]. Hyg. Publ. Health. 2015; 50 (2): 395-400. 2. Biskupska M, Konieczna M. Noworodek i jego rodzice w obliczu choroby i śmierci. [The infant and his parents in the face of illness and death]. Now. Lek. 2013; 82 (2): 142-149. 3. Kopeć A, Aftyka A, Humeniuk E, i wsp. Hospitalizacja dziecka w

tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998;118(1):61–8. 5. Negm H, Atef A, Lasheen H, Kamel AA, Azooz K, Elhoussainy O. Factors affecting secondary post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage: a case– control study. Egypt J Otolaryngol. 2017;33(1):50-5. 6. Wahlers A. Inpatient treatment of tonsillectomy from the patient’s point of view. HNO. 2004;52(2):153-5. 7. Søreide AK, Olofsson J. Tonsillectomy-day surgery or hospitalization? Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 1999;119(10):1423-7. 8. Wright S, Deskin R. Tonsillitis, Tonsillectomy, and Adenoidectomy. In: Quinn FB Jr., Ryan

, Puzić N, Kopitar N, Vrabič M, Ivanovski M, Vidmar G. Effectiveness of a fall-risk reduction programme for inpatient rehabilitation after stroke. Disabil Rehabil 2016; 38(18): 1811-9. 8. Dee V, Toro J, Lee S, Sherwood P, Haile D. Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: The Predictive Value of the Morse Fall Scale in Hospitalized Patients. Clin J Oncol Nurs 2017; 21(5): 599-603. 9. Bailey PH, Rietze LL, Moroso S, Szilva N. A description of a process to calibrate the Morse fall scale in a long-term care home. Appl Nurs Res 2011; 24(4): 263-8. 10. Forrest GP, Chen E, Huss S


The aim of this study was to identify the bacterial species circulating in various wards of the Emergency Clinical Hospital Constanta, involved in infections associated with hospitalization. Clinical specimens were obtained during 2016 year period. Identification of species and sensitivity tests were performed on VITEK 2 System. There were isolated 163 bacterial strains suspected to be responsible for infections associated with hospitalization. Surgery wards had the most important number of cases, 49% of all. The second most affected ward was neonatology (11%), as many as gynecology (5%) and pediatrics (6 %) together. According to the site of the infection, digestive are majoritary (42.94%), followed by surgical wounds (16.56%) and respiratory infections (15.33%). Septicemia cases (11.04%) are important due to the severity.

Distribution on months varies between a minimum number of cases in January (5) and a maximum of cases in April (19).Gram-negative bacilli were the most frequently involved (49%). The most frequent species was Acinetobacter baumanii (28 cases), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (15) and E.coli (7). Anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium difficile) are the second most important group (32% of the cases), followed by Gram positive cocci (15%) mostly staphylococci. Multidrug resistance was diagnosed in most Acinetobacter baumanii strains. A special attention must be given to associations of bacteria, that even though are in small number (2% of the cases), are more difficult to be treated.


Hospitalisation course and outcome for patients with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae infection is less favourable due to extensive antibacterial resistance. This study was conducted to identify possible risk factors that could influence the hospitalisation course and outcome in these patients. The study protocol included demographic, clinical, hospitalisation, bacteriological and plasmid genetic data. The preliminary study results showed that hospitalisation course and outcome was less favourable for internal medicine profile patients with ESBL producing bacteria, TEM gene presence in the bacterial plasmid genome, patient age < 65 years and patients with infectious and musculoskeletal diseases. The study includes preliminary data only and further studies should be carried out to verify the suggested risk factors.


Introduction: Hospital admissions fell dramatically in Romania during the COVID-19 pandemic partially due to urgent legislation for controlling the infection rates that influenced the selection criteria for hospitalization and also due to fear of infection with SARS-CoV-2 which resulted in avoiding medical services.

Aim: This study aimed to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the population availability to access medical services by comparing the admission rates for all departments of the University Emergency Hospital, Bucharest, from March to August 2019 and March to August 2020.

Methods: A cohort of 38.730 patients was analyzed according to hospitalization rate from March to August 2019 and March to August 2020.

Results: From March to August 2020 patients were hospitalized as a result of a medical emergency rather than an appointment, as outpatient and hospitalization rates changed dramatically. Thus, 67.4% accessed hospitalization from March to August 2019 and 32.6% accessed hospitalization from March to August 2020. The proportion of the patients admitted from the Ambulatory Care Unit decreased significantly from 44.2% in 2019 to 32.7% in 2020. Also, the structure of the patients’ profile has been affected.

Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic period in 2020 (March-September) affected the hospitalization rate and the structure of the patients’ profile that came to the University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest, Romania.

Conclusion: The patients who would have accessed the medical health services that might have resulted in hospitalization could have resulted in out-of-hospital deaths and this should also be the focus of the public health authorities.


It is crucial to inform the public about the procedures in psychiatric practice, meant to ensure complex and adequate medical care for the mentally ill patient, in respect of the dignity and rights of the patient, but also according to legal regulations. The occurrence of twisted considerations about psychiatry and patients with mental illness is due to the lack of information about mental illness, the beneficial effects of drug therapy, the need for hospitalization and patient protection in a psychiatric hospital, as part of treatment. When a psychiatric patient is brought in the guard room of a psychiatric hospital by the public services (EMT, police, public guardians, etc.), by his family or when the patient voluntarily asks to be hospitalized (the ideal model), they will receive complex medical care in full respect for his rights. Some situations occur when the patient refuses to express his consent regarding the consultation, diagnosis, treatment or even hospitalization (surveillance and monitoring) in the psychiatric hospital, considering unjustified any approach in this regard and that this violates his fundamental rights. The form of hospitalization, without the patient’s consent, is called involuntary hospitalization (sectioned). This raises an issue between “respecting the patient’s rights” if he is acting to endanger himself or others or “restricting” them by involuntary hospitalization, which would increase the quality of care and patient safety.


Introduction. The problem of health care affects every country. The structure and quality of hospitalization in Poland have changed over recent years. The state’s management of a balanced policy is possible prior to the collection of reports allowing to obtain data enabling assessment of changes in the health structure of the population, development of statistical data, as well as implementation and supervision of the National Health Program.

Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of hospitalization basing on the patients’ assessment of the availability, conditions, course of treatment and contact with hospital staff in the city of Lublin.

Material and methods. The material for analysis was data collected from 254 patients. Respondents represented departments of diabetology, rehabilitation and internal diseases. The group consisted of 159 women and 95 men aged 19-84. The interview questionnaire was a research tool. Respondents were asked to assess: accessibility to hospital, efficiency of completing formalities when admitted to the hospital, cleanliness in the room, quality of the gastronomic services and contact with nursing and medical staff. Likert’s 5-point scale was used. Statistical analysis was performed using the software “STATISTICA 10.0”.

Results. Most respondents assessed the quality of hospitalization as satisfactory. As many as 99% of respondents assessed contact with doctors as good or very good. Contact with nursing staff was rated as good by 88% of respondents.

Conclusions. This study demonstrated good quality of health care in the examined hospital in Lublin. However, it is important to emphasize the need for further research aimed at collecting data on the presented problem.

Inmates . Reprint. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd, 1973. 386 p. HARRIS, David John et al. Law of the European Convention on Human Rights . 2 nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. 902 p. HUSTOFT, Kjetil; LARSEN, Tor Ketil; BRØNNICK, Kolbjørn; JOA, Inge; JOHANNESSEN, Jan Olav; RUUD, Torleif. Voluntary or involuntary acute psychiatric hospitalization in Norway: A 24 h follow up study. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry , vol. 56, January–February 2018, p. 27–34. ZUCKERBERG, Joaquin. International human rights for mentally ill persons: The Ontario

. (2014). The clinical and economic impact of exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cohort of hospitalized patients. PLoS One. 9(6), 1-8. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101228 4. Wan E, DeMeo D, Hersh C, Shapiro S, Rosiello R, Sama S, Fuhlbrigge A, Foreman M & Silverman E. (2011). Clinical predictors of frequent exacerbations in subjects with 6 severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Respir Med. 105(4), 588–594. DOI: 10.1016/j.rmed.2010.11.015 5. Hurst J, Vestbo J, Anzueto A, Locantore N, Mullerova H, Tal-Singer R, Miller B, Lomas DA, Agusti