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), 2193-8. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0117 El-Bakary, N. E. R. 2011. Surface Morphology of the tongue of the Hoopoe ( Upupa epops ). Journal of American Science , 7 (1), 394–399. Gadel-Rab, A. G., Shawki, N. A., Saber, S. A. A. 2017. Morpho-Functional adaptations of the lingual epithelium of two bird species which have different feeding habits. The Eygptian journal of Hospital Medicine , 69 (3), 2115–2127. Gill, F., Donsker, D. 2017. Todies, motmots, bee-eaters, hoopoes, wood hoopoes & hornbills. IOC World Bird List 7:1. Fabbri, M., Mongiardino, K. N., Pritchard, A

References Aellen E. (1942): Siedelt den Wiedehopf an! - Die Vögel der Heimat 13: 28-29. Arlettaz R., Perrin N. (1995): The trophic niches of sympatric sibling Myotis myotis and Myotis blythii: Do mouse-eared bats select prey? - Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 67: 361-376. Arlettaz R., Schaad M., Reichlin T. S., Schaub M. (2010): Impact of weather and climate variation on Hoopoe reproductive ecology and population growth. - Journal of Ornithology 151: 889-899. Atkinson P. W., Buckingham D. L., Morris A. J. (2004): What factors determine where

References Bank, L. 2015. Az év madara 2015-ben: a búbosbanka [The bird of the year in 2015: The Hoopoe]. – Madártávlat 22(1): 4–7. (in Hungarian) Bankovics, A. 1984. Búbosbanka [Hoopoe]. – In: Haraszthy, L. (ed.) Magyarország fészkelő madarai [The breeding birds of Hungary]. – Natura, Budapest, p. 124. (in Hungarian) Bächler, E., Hahn, S., Schaub, M., Arlettaz, R., Jenni, L., Fox, J. W., Afanasyev, V. & Liechti, F. 2010. Year-round tracking of small trans-Saharan migrants using light-level geolocators. – PLoS ONE 5(3): e9566. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009566


Islam is far from being only a range of acts of strict observation that the believer is asked to do. It is also the vast garden of mystical inquiry, an ongoing effort to reveal the powerful action of the Sublime in the material world we live in. This mystical quest for the Devine is exemplified here by the poem of Farīd-ud-Dīn ʼAttar of Nishapur about the Speech of the Birds, where the hoopoe instructs the other birds on the Sufi path. Engaging into this path means destroying all the attachments of his own ego with the sensitive world and delve into mysteries. In the end, the annihilation of the self allows the great joy of the eternal union with the Supreme.


Migration poses a high risk to birds. Crossing of large bodies of water is especially demanding for land birds. One of the dangers faced by migrants are opportunistic predators like gulls. Most gulls Laridae are generalist predators with omnivorous diets. Attacking on migrating birds was investigated during ground observations of bird migration at Ada Island (S Montenegro) between 17 Mar and 10 Apr 2015. We recorded 20 attacks on 22 individuals of six species and on one unidentified passerine. In four instances gulls attacked birds of prey, in two Hoopoe Upupa epops and in 16 passerines. Except for two cases when small flocks of two birds were attacked, gulls attacked individuals migrating singly. Considering our data around one percent of passerines migrating during the day across the southern Adriatic Sea can expect to be attacked by gulls. This percentage can be as high as 9.5% for passerines migrating singly.


Due to numerous bird surveys in the past 20 years, the avifauna of Goričko is relatively well known. For some species, the very first national ecological researches were conducted in this area. The article summarizes all bird surveys so far. It presents population trends of farmland species which is one of the most threatened bird groups in Europe. Most of the qualifying species of this habitat that are protected within the Natura 2000 network have suffered a decline at Goričko, specifically Quail Coturnix coturnix, Scops Owl Otus scops, Hoopoe Upupa epops, Woodlark Lullula arborea and White Stork Ciconia ciconia. The number of breeding pairs of the latter has not changed, but its fecundity has decreased. Furthermore, populations of other farmland bird species have decreased, for example Skylark Alauda arvensis, Stonechat Saxicola rubicola, Serin Serinus serinus and Common Linnet Linaria cannabina, as well as butterfly populations and tracts of grassland habitat types. National agricultural and nature conservation policies are evidently inefficient in protecting the biodiversity of Goričko. The most probable cause for bird population decline is agricultural intensification, which manifests itself at Goričko as disappearance and intensification of meadows, land consolidation, degradation of traditional orchards and use of pesticides. As a result of land consolidation hedges, uncultivated strips between fields, individual trees and bushes and minority habitat types are disappearing, whereas the surface of arable fields is increasing. Nature conservation measures performed by the Public Institute Goričko Nature Park with the support of DOPPS – BirdLife Slovenia volunteers seem to be efficient, but are spatially and temporally constrained. For this reason, they cannot serve as a substitute for insufficient systemic financing which could be improved by substantive and financial reform of the agri-environmental scheme. Currently, a negligible percentage (1% in 2016) of Goričko is covered by agrienvironmental scheme measures with positive influence on qualifying species and habitat types. As a consequence, only an insignificant share of subsidies from the Rural Development Plan is used for nature protection at Goričko. If the system of agricultural subsidies remains unaltered, no improvement of the conditions for bird conservation at Goričko can be expected.

and Relationships. - Urban Fauna (Bydgoszcz) 6: 195-207. - (2014b): Breeding bird community of a large cemetery in a Central European city in 1969 and 40 years later. - Vogelwelt 135: 67-74. - (2014c): Population densities of birds breeding in urbanized habitats in the Grabiszyn district in the city of Wrocław. - Acta Musei Silesiae, Sci. Natur. 63: 139-150. - (2015): Population expansion of the Hoopoe Upupa epops in Silesia, SW Poland. - Rivista Italiana di Ornithologia 85: 38-40. - (2016a): Breeding avifauna of Niemodlin countryside (SW Poland) during the years

[Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus). Groups’reports]. Dravce a sovy 5(1): 12. [In Slovak with English summary] Maderič B 2010: Sokol červenonohý (Falco vespertinus). Správy skupín [Red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus). Groups’reports]. Dravce a sovy 6(1): 10. [In Slovak with English summary] Nuhlíčková S, Krištín A, Degma P & Hoi H 2016: Variability in hoopoe Upupa epops diet: annual and sampling effect. Folia Zoologica 65(3): 189–199. Ontiveros D & Pleguezuelos JM 2000: Influence of prey densities in the distribution and breeding success of Bonelli

–185. Nuhlíčková S, Krištín A, Degma P & Hoi H 2016: Variability in hoopoe Upupa epops diet: annual and sampling effect. Folia Zoologica 65(3): 189–199. Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH & Wagner H 2013: Vegan: community ecology package, version 2.0–8. Retrieved on February 22, 2017 from . Palatitz P, Fehérvári P, Soit, S, Kotymán L, Neidert D & Hamos A 2011: Exploratory analyses of foraging habitat selection of the red-footed falcon ( Falco vespertinas

tones, from the tense street language of immigrant London to the soft, dreamy notes of the butterfly girl, Ayesha. The most challenging of Rushdie’s books and my favourite texts to work on have been his children’s books: Haroun and the Sea of Stories and Luka and the Fire of Life. Rushdie’s linguistic imagination is at its absolute best in these books written for his two sons. From Iff the Water Genie and Butt the Mechanical Hoopoe to the Insultana of Ott and the Respectorate of I to all the mythological references imaginable, the world created in the two