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Homonymy and Polysemy on Lexical Access: An MEG Study. Cognitive Brain Research 24: 57-65. Bicknell, Klinton, Elman, Jeffrey L., Hare, Mary, McRae, Ken and Kutas, Marta. 2010. Effects of Event Knowledge in Processing Verbal Arguments. Journal of Memory & Language 63: 489-505. Borg, Emma. 2004. Minimal Semantics . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Borg, Emma. 2007. Minimalism versus Contextualism in Semantics. In Context-Sensitivity and Semantic Minimalism: New Essays on Semantics and Pragmatics . Edited by Gerhard Preyer and Georg Peter. New York, NY: Oxford

Abstract

The paper gives a basic characteristic of the methodology and results of quantitative research of the development of noun case homonymy in Slovak and the East Slavonic languages in the comparison with the late Proto-Slavic ground state. The methodology is based on findings in the field of cognitive psychology, according to which a higher degree of ambiguity is linked with a higher level of the interpretative complexity. The paper also includes a proposal of the interpretation of findings of this research, which reveal the operation of principles of positive and negative feedback in the development of the above-mentioned languages morphology. The interpretation is based on the basic assumptions of the natural selection theory, in accordance to which the author proposes to explain the identified trends in the quasi-teleological spirit. The text is inspired by Jakobson's understanding of markedness and language teleonomy.

Abstract

The study examines yes/no questions in the Ẹ́dó language with the aim of identifying the morphemes that function as yes/no question markers. Relying on primary data generated from a survey, the study proposes that there are five overt yes/no question markers in the language. Four of these question markers (té, yí, rà, and kué) have been discussed in the literature, but this study provides a different account of the role of in polar questions, and suggests that another morpheme, i.e., can be classified as a yes/no question marker. Furthermore, the study reveals that the question markers are homonyms of other lexical and functional words. This has implications for the distribution of the question markers, as the co-occurrence with their homonyms yields unacceptable sentences. The paper describes this constraint on the use of the markers within the framework of Distributed Morphology.

Abstract

The paper describes the preparation and development of the text collections within the framework of MorphoRuEval-2017 shared task, an evaluation campaign designed to stimulate development of the automatic morphological processing technologies for Russian. The main challenge for the organizers was to standardize all available Russian corpora with the manually verified high-quality tagging to a single format (Universal Dependencies CONLL-U). The sources of the data were the disambiguated subcorpus of the Russian National Corpus, SynTagRus, OpenCorpora.org data and GICR corpus with the resolved homonymy, all exhibiting different tagsets, rules for lemmatization, pipeline architecture, technical solutions and error systematicity. The collections includes both normative texts (the news and modern literature) and more informal discourse (social media and spoken data), the texts are available under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license.

Summary

This study opens with a brief reflection on the typological value of the person and name of Joshua in the ancient Church. Christians saw the figure of Joshua as a foreshadowing of the saving work of Jesus Christ. According to patristic vision the order of grace in Jesus Saviour replaces the ancient order of the Law. On the basis of homonymy Joshua is associated with Christ. The intent of the study was also to present the historical beginning of the practice to invocate the Lord’s Name. To express the faith in Christ symbolically, the first Christians recurred to the use of numerology and to the nomina sacra. This article argues that the ancient Christian literature contains sustained and substantial references to the name of Jesus as ‘Saviour’. It is possible to find the theological finality in the interpretation of Lord’s name. At every point of the discussion in the Patristic tradition it is found a considerable richness and significance of the name of Jesus (biblical, doctrinal and spiritual).

Summary

Background: Patient and sample misidentification may cause significant harm or discomfort to the patients, especially when incorrect data is used for performing specific healthcare activities. It is hence obvious that efficient and quality care can only start from accurate patient identification. There are many opportunities for misidentification in healthcare and laboratory medicine, including homonymy, incorrect patient registration, reliance on wrong patient data, mistakes in order entry, collection of biological specimens from wrong patients, inappropriate sample labeling and inaccurate entry or erroneous transmission of test results through the laboratory information system. Many ongoing efforts are made to prevent this important healthcare problem, entailing streamlined strategies for identifying patients throughout the healthcare industry by means of traditional and innovative identifiers, as well as using technologic tools that may enhance both the quality and efficiency of blood tubes labeling. The aim of this article is to provide an overview about the liability of identification errors in healthcare, thus providing a pragmatic approach for diverging the so-called patient identification crisis.

Abstract

Dorota Lipowska. A Communicative Community of Agents. Lingua Posnaniensis, vol. L IV (1)/2012. The Poznań Society for the Advancement of the Arts and Sciences. PL ISSN 0079-4740, ISBN 978-83-7654-103-7, pp. 77-87.

Computer modelling is becoming an increasingly important tool for researching the problem of origin and evolution of language. Afundamental technique is that of multi-agent modelling, which simulates a system of dynamically interacting individuals called agents, equipped with strictly defined properties and rules governing their behaviour or evolution. In such a population (a communicative community), as a result only of local interactions between agents, a process of self-organization occurs and some kind of global property emerges, such as linguistic coherence. Presented here are two models of the naming game type, in which agents exchange names of objects, gradually establishing a common vocabulary. In the evolutionary version there was observed a very strong link between biological and linguistic processes, being a clear manifestation of Baldwin’s effect - genetic assimilation of the ability to learn (a language, for example). In the multi-object version the development of homonymy and synonymy was studied, as well as the effect of noise on a developing language.

Abstract

The aim of this study is to identify possible methods of formation of Romani technical terms by means of an analysis of a Slovak­Romani dictionary of administrative and legal terms. If the existing word stock of Romani is felt to be insufficient, missing words are added by borrowing from Slovak. The borrowings serve as one­word or multi­word terms (štatutaris – ‘štatutár’/’statutory person’; bežno učtos – ‘bežný účet’/’current account’); however, more often they serve as components of multi­word, most frequently two­word terms which take the form of semi­calques. Romani components of the semi­calques are either words used in their common dictionary meaning or neologisms. The analysed terminology is characterized by a high rate of homonymy of adjectival forms in the function of the determining component in multi­word naming units. The characteristic feature of the analysed Romani terminology is instability, which manifests itself especially in the use of various terms to denote the same content, either Romani terms or variant forms of terms (iribnaskeri forma – ‘písomná formaʼ/’written formʼ, irinďi informácia – ‘písomná informáciaʼ/’written informationʼ).

Abstract

In the production of concise texts, several instruments are used, of which two can be considered as basic: intratextual referencing (anaphora/cataphora) and the simple or complex ellipsis (ellipsis/syllepsis). However, the use of these instruments affects the unambiguity and intelligibility of the text. Certain rules for and limits to the simplification and shortening of the primary text are needed to secure the possibility of an unambiguous reconstruction of the text by the language user. However, we show that the elimination of homonymy from these texts seems to require considerable skill in the given area. Some such texts may be unintelligible even to informed experts. We delineate some basic cases of application of instruments for the streamlining of texts, with paradigmatic examples from law, including its Anglophone variants. Partly due to the nature of modern English as used in law, Anglo-American linguistics was compelled to formulate, in cooperation with legal theorists, explicit rules for the production and reconstruction of concise texts. By contrast, neither Slovak, nor Czech linguistics offers a self-contained set of such explicit rules. Using examples from law, we therefore propose explicit formulations of several rules which are used implicitly. They are the rule of the last antecedent, the rule of serial antecedents, the rule of the nearest reasonable referent, the rule of the series qualifier, the rule of unchanged topic, the rule of focus development, and the rule of repetition dominance. We argue that in the reconstruction of certain concise legal texts, the syntactic and semantic rules provided by linguistics or logic do not suffice. Therefore, it is necessary to complement them with specific methods of interpretation of legal texts.

, Serhiy. 2016. Cognitive rhetoric of effect: energy flow as a means of persuasion in inaugurals. Topics in Linguistics 17(2). Quirk, Randolph & Greenbaum, Sydney & Leech, Geoffrey & Starvik, Jan. 1985. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language . London: Longman. Reid, Wallis. 2004. Monosemy, homonymy and polysemy. In Contini-Morava, Ellen & Kirsner, Robert S. & Rodrigez-Bachiller, Betsy (eds.), Cognitive and Communicative Approaches to Linguistic Analysis , 131-150. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing. Rosch, Eleanor. 1978. Principles of Categorization. In