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Pirate Television Stations in the Years 1990-1994


The history of pirate, illegal television stations in Poland is presented here against the broader background of systemic transformations (both political and legal). According to the author of the article, it was an inevitable phenomenon, closely linked to the creation of the foundations of a democratic, lawful state with free-market economy. They were a factor which enforced acceleration of political change, legislative works and affected the change of the programming offer. Although pirate television stations were a short-lived phenomenon, they had huge impact on the later development of electronic media in Poland.

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The Situation of National and Regional Public Television in Spain
Public Media in the Crossroad

References Arriaza Ibarra, K. (2009) “The promotion of public interest through new policy initiatives for public television: the cases of France and Spain”, Interactions: Studies in Communication and Culture 1:2, pp.267-282, doi:10.1386/iscc.1.2.267_1 Baget, J. (1993) Historia de la Televisión en España, 1956-1975 ( History of Television in Spain, 1956-1975 ), Barcelona: Feedback ediciones. Berumen, S.A. (2009) La Política de la Competencia en Europa ( The policy of competition in Europe ), Madrid

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Indexicality or Technological Intermediate? Moving Image Representation, Materiality, and the Real

References Abramson, Albert. 2003. The History of Television, 1942 to 2000 . Jefferson: McFarland & Company. Arnheim, Rudolf. 1957. Film as Art . Los Angeles: University of California Press. Atkins, Albert. 2005. Peirce on the Index and Indexical Reference. Transactions of the Charles S Peirce Society vol. 41. no. 1: 161–188. Bazin, André. 1960. The Ontology of the Photographic Image. Film Quarterly vol. 13. no. 4: 4–9. Brady, David Jones. 2009. Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy . Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons and The Optical

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Why Ageing is More Important than Being Old
Understanding the Elderly in a Mediatized World

Rural Sweden Communications 37 2 173 194 Kaun, Anne & Schwarzenegger, Christian (2014). No Media, Less Life? Online Disconnection in Mediatized Worlds. First Monday , 19(11), online only publication: Kaun Anne Schwarzenegger Christian 2014 No Media, Less Life? Online Disconnection in Mediatized Worlds First Monday 19 11 online only publication: Kortti, Jukka (2011). Multidimensional Social History of Television: Social uses of Finnish Television

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From Public Service Broadcasting to Soci(et)al TV
Producers’ Perceptions of Interactivity and Audience Participation in Finland and Israel

companies, interactivity mainly included activities such as voting, polls, competitions, game-like activities, and commenting on televisual content (F5, F7, F8). Emphasising their commercial orientation they describe interactivity as an opportunity ‘to engage in the program and, possibly also, in the associated brands’ (F8). The Finnish interviewees also commented that interactivity is nothing new; viewers have voted throughout the history of television through calling to the studio or sending postcards (F7, F8; also Keinonen 2011 : 148–149; Beyer et al. 2007 ; Enli

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Ordinary People on Television
A longitudinal study of Swedish Television, 1982–2011

eye (cf. Syvertsen 2001 : 319). These participants appear under their own names and primarily represent themselves, their everyday lives, and their own experiences. As Bonner (2003) shows, ordinary television is an essential but often disregarded part of the history of television. In accordance with Scannell ( 2010 : 39), we consider all programme genres as of historical interest and think that “it would be an elementary error to think that the only properly historical parts of the record were serious factual programs; news and documentaries.” We think that by

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