The history of pirate, illegal television stations in Poland is presented here against the broader background of systemic transformations (both political and legal). According to the author of the article, it was an inevitable phenomenon, closely linked to the creation of the foundations of a democratic, lawful state with free-market economy. They were a factor which enforced acceleration of political change, legislative works and affected the change of the programming offer. Although pirate television stations were a short-lived phenomenon, they had huge impact on the later development of electronic media in Poland.
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No Media, Less Life? Online Disconnection in Mediatized Worlds
online only publication: http://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i11.5497
Kortti, Jukka (2011). Multidimensional Social HistoryofTelevision: Social uses of Finnish Television
Producers’ Perceptions of Interactivity and Audience Participation in Finland and Israel
Heidi Keinonen and Oranit Klein Shagrir
companies, interactivity mainly included activities such as voting, polls, competitions, game-like activities, and commenting on televisual content (F5, F7, F8). Emphasising their commercial orientation they describe interactivity as an opportunity ‘to engage in the program and, possibly also, in the associated brands’ (F8). The Finnish interviewees also commented that interactivity is nothing new; viewers have voted throughout the historyoftelevision through calling to the studio or sending postcards (F7, F8; also Keinonen 2011 : 148–149; Beyer et al. 2007 ; Enli
A longitudinal study of Swedish Television, 1982–2011
Göran Eriksson, Leonor Camauër and Yuliya Lakew
eye (cf. Syvertsen 2001 : 319). These participants appear under their own names and primarily represent themselves, their everyday lives, and their own experiences.
As Bonner (2003) shows, ordinary television is an essential but often disregarded part of the historyoftelevision. In accordance with Scannell ( 2010 : 39), we consider all programme genres as of historical interest and think that “it would be an elementary error to think that the only properly historical parts of the record were serious factual programs; news and documentaries.” We think that by