Umiejętności. Budzyński Z., 2013, Cesarskie gościńce w Galicji. Pierwszy etap budowy sieci dróg bitych (wg mapy józefińskiej Fryderyka Miega ). In: J. Kamińska--Kwak (ed.), Galicyjskie drogi i bezdroża. Studium infrastruktury, organizacji i kultury podróżowania . Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, pp. 25–58. Cebrykow P., 2015, Dawne mapy topograficzne Lubelszczyzny jako źródła informacji w badaniach historyczno-geograficznych (Early topographical maps of Lublin region as information sources in historical-geographical studies). In: A. Czerny (ed.), Dawne
). Źródła i metoda . Kraków: Polska Akademia Umiejętności. Budzyński Z., 2013, Cesarskie gościńce w Galicji. Pierwszy etap budowy sieci dróg bitych (wg mapy józefińskiej Fryderyka Miega ). In: Galicyjskie drogi i bezdroża. Studium infrastruktury, organizacji i kultury podróżowania . Ed. J. Kamińska-Kwak. Rzeszów: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego, pp. 25–58. Cebrykow P., 2015, Dawne mapy topograficzne Lubelszczyzny jako źródła informacji w badaniach historyczno-geograficznych (Early topographical maps of Lublin region as information sources in historical-geographical
Kartograficzny , vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 75–84. Libiński, H 1912, Jak czytać austriackie mapy wojskowe i orientować się za ich pomocą w terenie? , Księgarnia Gebethner i Spółka, Kraków. Naylor, S 2006, ‘Historicalgeography: natures, landscapes, environments’, Progress in Human Geography , vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 792–802. Nita, J., Myga-Piątek, U. 2012, ‘Rola GIS w ocenie historycznych opracowań kartograficznych na przykładzie Wyżyny Częstochowskiej’ in Prace Komisji Krajobrazu Kulturowego, eds J Plit & J Nita, Źródła kartograficzne w badaniach krajobrazu kulturowego, Sosnowiec
WARSZAWA 1992 Vol. 5
GIZA CHANNEL OF THE NILE IN MEDIAEVAL PERIOD.
A CONTRIBUTION TO HISTORICALGEOGRAPHY OF GREATER
The Nile in contemporary urban area of Greater Cairo flows for about 35
kilometres from the environs of Helwan to Shubra al-Khima. Geographically,
this territory belongs to two different natural regions: Upper Egypt in the south,
i.e. the relatively wide, although distinct valley between high escarpments of the
Western and Eastern Deserts plateaux, and Lower Egypt, i.e. gradually
The presented research concerning the landscape evolution of the area of the Kazimierski Landscape Park assumed the analysis of landscape changes that took place in the western part of the Nałęczów Plateau in eastern Poland as a result of increased anthropopressure. To achieve this goal, the diverse data was employed: archives of the “Archeological Survey of Poland” obtained from the National Heritage Board of Poland, the registry data from the 16th century made available as part of the “Atlas Fontium” project elaborated by the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences, old map of the Western Galicia from 1808, a tactical map of the Military Geographical Institute in Warsaw from 1937, and the “Topographic Objects Database” (BDOT10k) obtained from the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography. Based on the analysed data, maps presenting the development of the settlement network from the moment of permanent settlement of the area up to the present state and maps showing the changes in land use in the Kazimierski Landscape Park over the last centuries have been designed.
The results of historical and geographical analyses carried out as part of the research were compared with the results of geomorphological research conducted in the studied area. Verification of the obtained results allowed to determine the scope in which man influenced the evolution of the landscape of the analysed area, including its diversification depending on the historical period and the type of the economy. The process of georeferencing the map of Western Galicia elaborated by colonel A.M. von Heldensfeld from 1808 and the tactical map 1:100,000 of Military Geographical Institute from 1937 covering the research area (14,974 ha) was carried out in the ArcGIS Desktop software. The calibration process was evaluated in the Map Analyst program which makes it possible to analyze the distortions of old maps. Then, vectorization of selected terrain coverage classes and visualization of spatial data were conducted. This way, the land use maps were analyzed in terms of environmental changes that occurred over the past centuries by identifying the areas with the largest development changes. The obtained results were compared with the database of historical objects created for the purposes of this research, based on data provided by the National Heritage Board of Poland and the Institute of History of the Polish Academy of Sciences in order to determine the development trends of the settlement network in the region. The additional statistical analysis made it possible to determine the trend of changes and to interpret the distribution of areas threatened by the occurrence of mass movements with the analyzed anthropogenic determinants.
The author’s aim is to reflect on the cartographic modelling of historical borders based on the example of the series “Historical Atlas of Poland. Detailed maps of the 16th century” (HAP). HAP presents secular (state, palatinate, district) and religious borders (dioceses, archdeaconry, deanery, parish). The belonging of historic settlements to administrative units is determined on the basis of written sources. During work on the current volumes of HAP, the borders were reconstructed through their manual interpolation (the so-called linear model). Digital tools enable the automatic generation of administrative units based on settlements in point geometry (Thiessen polygons) or the use of modern divisions (precincts [obręby ewidencyjne]) as a reference to them (semi-automatic method). The article compares and assesses the three mentioned methods of determining historical borders and the possibilities of harmonizing them in relation to contemporary administrative divisions. The source material consisted of 18,357 settlements from the volumes of HAP published so far and 235 parishes for detailed analyses. Precincts were adopted as reference areas due to the possibilities of data harmonization.
The article discusses the causes and effects of the plague which is said to have spread over many Polish towns in 1507. The focus is on its possible causes, related to the occurrence of droughts and floods in Central Europe in the late 15th and early 16th century. Available sources from the late mediaeval period have also been analysed for the recorded perceptions of the extreme climatic and weather conditions. Special attention has been paid to the issues of intensity and spatial distribution of the effects of the plague on the example of one district. The analysis covered a variety of issues such as settlement changes, prices of basic goods or even some pollen data. The main results of the study indicate that the climatic extremes at the turn of the 16th century exerted a long-term impact on the society and economy of the region. They also contributed to the abandonment of settlements on rural sites.
Literature Arnold S., 1929, Geografja historyczna, jej zadania i metody (Historicalgeography, its tasks and methods) . “Przegląd Historyczny” T. 28, nr 1, pp. 91−120. Bartoszewicz A., Bartoszewicz H., 2013, Dzieje kartografii miast polskich do końca XIX wieku. Zarys problematyki (The cartographic history of Polish towns until the end of the 19th century. An outline of issues) . “Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny” Vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 236-255. Czaja R., 2018, Historical Atlas of Polish Towns. Between source edition and the cartographic presentation of research on
Tourism in Moscow after the ‘Perestroika’ transformations
Moscow seems indeed to be a centre of world tourism. On the one hand, its tourism attractiveness for Russians and foreigners, as well as the wide opportunities it offers to its own inhabitants, stimulates trips for tourism and recreational purposes. On the other hand, it is determined by a number of historical, geographical, demographic, geopolitical, economic and socio-cultural factors.
The aim of the article is to draw the reader's attention to the tourism attractiveness of renowned Polish libraries. These have attained a tourism function due to tourism exploration and penetration, but remain in the shadow of other Polish cultural assets. The article outlines the historical geography of Polish libraries, an analysis of tourism assets and an attempt to classify and catalogue libraries in Poland.