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Abstract

Georgia can be characterised by its turbulent history, centuries-old traditions, and a great ethnic diversity. This makes it necessary to include historical determinants, in addition to geopolitical and economic factors, when making a regional analysis of its territory and contemporary governance issues. Five stages of the development of the present territorial division of Georgia are distinguished. They have been identified by means of an analysis of key events (critical junctures) of significance in the formation of its historical regions. Additionally, their influence at each of the three levels of the current territorial division of independent Georgia is discussed, in particular in the context of territorial governance.

Landed Property of Churches and Denominational Associations in Poland

Historical factors are presented that have determined landed property belonging to churches and denominational associations in Poland. The article then moves to post-war times to discuss the size and structure of church property resources in 1950, before its appropriation by the State in 1952, and after its restoration to the ecclesiastical owners following the systemic transformation of 1989. The form and ways of recovery of church property are discussed, as well as its present size, structure and distribution.

. SEXTON, D. THOMAS, M. HENSON and R. J. HENRYA (2010): Geographical and historical determinants of microsatellite variation in Eucalyptus pilularis. Can. J. For. Res., 40, 1051-1063. SHEPHERD, M. and C. RAYMOND (2010): Species differentiation and gene flow in the Blackbutts (genus Eucalyptus subgenus Eucalyptus section Pseudophloius). Conserv. Genet., 11, 1965-1978. STAPE, J. L., D. BINKLEY and M. G. RYAN (2008): Production and carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and nutrient manipulations. For. Ecol. Manage., 255, 920-930.

): Geographical and historical determinants of microsatellite variation in Eucalyptus pilularis. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 40: 1051-1063. STEANE, D. A., G. E. MCKINNON, R. E. VAILLANCOURT and B. M. POTTS (1999): ITS sequence data resolve higher level relationships among the eucalypts. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12: 215-223. STEANE, D. A., R. E. VAILLANCOURT, J. RUSSELL, W. POWELL, D. MARSHALL et al. (2001): Development and characterisation of microsatellite loci in Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae). Silvae Genetica 50: 89-91. TAMURA, K., J. DUDLEY, M. NEI and

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structures. Those are the issues on which Cezary Mądry and Julia Kaczmarek- Khubnaia focus in “Historical determinants of re- gional divisions of Georgia and their implications for territorial governance”. The inclusion of this article in the thematic QG volume demonstrates the depth of the term ‘geography of governance’. The present volume shows the variety of new challenges and approaches to territorial govern- ance in such diverse countries as EU states, Israel and Georgia. That is why we believe that it will meet with great interest on the part of the interna

types was stated – Polish farming is still very diverse. Moreover, spatial distribution of types still refers to historical determinants as well as natural and socio-economic conditions and local spatial relationships. Characteristics of identified types and spatial distribution can be of major utilitarian importance for spatial planning authorities creating regional agricultural development. Moreover, the indication of the importance of the analysed diagnostic variables for particular types makes it easier to select the appropriate tools controlling agriculture and

marketing in sport illustrated by the example of the Olympics]. In M. Kazimierczak, J. Kosiewicz (Eds.) Sport i turystyka. Uwarunkowania historyczne i wyzwania współczesności [Sport and Tourism: Historical Determinants and Challenges of Modernity] (pp. 83-95). Poznań: Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Eugeniusza Piaseckiego w Poznaniu. ISBN: 978-83-61414-87-2; ISSN: 0239-7161. − Piątkowska, M., Żyśko, J. (2013). Sport as a tool for prevention and combat against social exclusion. In J. Saunders, M. Holzweg, W. Ho, L. Housner (Eds.), Current Issues in Contemporary

Ithaca, New-York. - Am Midl Nat. 102: 332-345. Gauch, H. G. & Whittaker, R. H. 1981. Hierarchical classification of community data. - J. Ecol. 69: 537-557. Gauch, H. G. 1982. Multivariate analysis in community ecology. - Camb. Stud. Ecol. 1: 1-298. Gleason, H. A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. - B Torrey Bot Club 53: 7-26. Glenn, M., Eberhardt, R., Hall, B., Foster, D.R., Harrod, J. & MacDonald, D. 2002. Vegetation variation across Cape Cod, Massachusetts: environmental and historical determinants. - J Biog. 29: 1439-1454. Golley, F. B

socio-economics of these areas is relatively persistent in Poland. 3.4 Agricultural sub-types and external determinants of agricultural development The spatial arrangement of selected sub-types (see Fig. 2 ) is related to external determinants of agricultural development. These relationships were determined by what percentage of gminas of a given agricultural sub-type was characterised by each political and historical determinant type, by each environmental determinant type, and by each socio-economic level determinant type (see Table 3 ). Table 3 Assessment of

migration (but not only) with the use of absolute values, it is necessary to stratify the analysis. Analysis stratification consists in comparison of similar units – capitals of voivodeships, urban poviats, cities from a similar size group and so on. On the one hand, there is analysis stratification, but on the other, there are regionalisms, specific features found in particular regions or their groups, which have their contemporary as well as historical determinants. While this article deals with migrations and revolves around rural areas on the national scale, it seems