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Ways of Presenting Environmental Elements in old Cartographic Records and Their Reliability

This article seeks to assess the reliability of the hydrographic type of environmental features depicted in old cartographic records up to the end of the 18th century.

Abstract

The author begins with presentation of a programme of creating the detailed cartographic picture of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 16th century, proposed by Stanisław Smolka from the Jagiellonian University at the first congress of Polish historians in Cracow in 1880. This initiative was partially realised in the atlas of Ruthenian lands of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the turn of the 16th and 17th century created by Aleksander Jabłonowski and printed in 1904 in Vienna. When Poland regained its independence, it became possible to organize further works. As their results two maps were designed, prepared and issued in the interwar period: the general map of the sixteenth-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania created by Jan Jakubowski, published in 1927 and 1928, and the map of Cracow Voivodship of the Four-Year Sejm period (1788–1792) elaborated by Karol Buczek with cooperation of several other persons and published in 1930 in Cracow.

The main topic of this article is a series of maps with commentaries prepared collectively in the Institute of History of Polish Academy of Sciences, entitled Atlas historyczny Polski. Mapy szczegółowe szesnastego wieku (Historical Atlas of Poland. Detailed maps of the 16th century) which includes Polish lands of the Crown. From the planned eight volumes with maps of individual voivodships or their groups, six were published successively in the years 1966–2018 and the last two are prepared for publishing in 2020. The author presents subject of the series and particularly contents of the main maps at the scale of 1:250,000.

This most detailed geographical and historical analysis of a large part of old Poland depicts the area in the 16th century, but it can also facilitate the process of gaining deeper knowledge about the history of these lands in the earlier and later centuries.

Abstract

The author’s aim is to reflect on the cartographic modelling of historical borders based on the example of the series “Historical Atlas of Poland. Detailed maps of the 16th century” (HAP). HAP presents secular (state, palatinate, district) and religious borders (dioceses, archdeaconry, deanery, parish). The belonging of historic settlements to administrative units is determined on the basis of written sources. During work on the current volumes of HAP, the borders were reconstructed through their manual interpolation (the so-called linear model). Digital tools enable the automatic generation of administrative units based on settlements in point geometry (Thiessen polygons) or the use of modern divisions (precincts [obręby ewidencyjne]) as a reference to them (semi-automatic method). The article compares and assesses the three mentioned methods of determining historical borders and the possibilities of harmonizing them in relation to contemporary administrative divisions. The source material consisted of 18,357 settlements from the volumes of HAP published so far and 235 parishes for detailed analyses. Precincts were adopted as reference areas due to the possibilities of data harmonization.

Abstract

The array of archival maps from the 19th and 20th centuries is very large and, in order to assess their reliability for a particular analysis, some kind of evaluation form must be used. The proposed evaluation form comprises both formal and quantitative criteria, enriched with the maps’ elaboration circumstances, which may influence their reliability. These factors are also applied at both the spatial and attribute levels of information. Guidelines include: the scope of content, the map’s mathematical precision, the descriptive information correctness, the time reference of the content, and the information transfer efficiency.

Abstract

The article presents the use of historical Polish post-war topographic maps and their usefulness in the detection and assessment of environmental changes caused by 20th century urbanisation. The case study area is the Polish city of Lublin. Two main research questions are defined and answered. The first is what kinds of maps can be used to trace environmental changes as well as to find the present-day remains of past environments and what is the reliability of these maps? Several series of topographic maps are used here together with aerial photography. The second research question is what changes can be found by comparing spatial sources and what features can be found today with the help of early maps. The main features investigated in this section are linear (road networks) and areal (orchards) supplemented with point features of various kinds (trees, wells, shrines). The quality of cartographic information is assessed and remnants of the past environment are discovered.

Abstract

The article presents an attempt to reconstruct the original site topographies of 13th-century Teutonic castles at Unisław and Starogród, which have not been preserved in the surface terrain. The archaeological remains of both castles are located in the west of Chełmno Land, on the edge of a moraine plateau 30 to 50 metres above the floor of the Vistula valley. The reconstruction used a research approach known as Historical GIS (HGIS), which, besides archaeological data, employs digitised historical cartographic sources. The research showed that changes in the original site topography are associated with anthropogenic transformations in the plateau surface, mainly due to agricultural use, and with retreat of the plateau edge resulting from natural and man-made landslide processes. The authors believe that the reconstruction of the castles’ original site topographies could be used to verify detailed hypotheses related to the conditions of their construction and operation.

Abstract

Natural as well as anthropogenic processes impact greatly sensitive coastal areas all over the world. The spectrum of natural processes involved can be classified as meteorological, geological, marine, and lithodynamic. The Baltic Sea with its Gulf of Riga is an area in which combined sea erosion and accumulation processes, as well as alluvial processes, play significant roles in the coastal development. Major anthropogenic processes include impacts from ports and coastal protection structures, such as Riga Port hydraulic structures, fairway channels and coastal defence items. During summer also additional pressure of recreational activities has increased the effect on the coastal beach. Levelling data, historical cartographical material and beach sedimentary material granulometric analysis were used to describe natural and anthropogenic effects on development of the coastal beach of Daugavgrîva Island.

Abstract

The case study focuses on localizing the vanished complex of Count Špork’s baroque landscape at Lysá nad Labem using aerial photography. The only source localizing the former historical objects is Vogt’s veduta from 1712. The objects were not captured in any historical cartographic materials, as they had disappeared before the first mapping of the territory. So no relevant information on the vanished objectsis at disposal. The results of the present study are rectification of the objects in the southwestern part of Vogt’s veduta and aerial images of the previously unspecified structures near the former hospital Karlov. The study provides more information on one of the largest vanished baroque complexes in Central Europe and opens up further for closer studies of this area including thebaroque landscape. At the same time, the effectiveness of aerial survey for the needs of landscape planning has been confirmed. Thanks to localizing the vanished monuments, they can be incorporated into the landscape planning system and approached as a cultural heritage, a value and a limit of the territory.

stosunków wodnych Niziny Gardneńsko-Łebskiej’ in Geoekosystem Wybrzeży Morskich 2, Poznań, Biała-Góra, Uniwersytet im. Adama Mickiewicza, pp. 15-18. Statuto, D, Cillis, G & Picuno, P 2015, ‘Historical cartography and GIS Tools for the analysis of land use and landscape changes’ in Simpozij aktualni zadaci mehanizacije poljoprivrede, Opatija. Utracka-Minko, B & Stańko, R 2005, Waloryzacja przyrodnicza oraz program ochrony wybranych mokradeł Słowińskiego Parku Narodowego - obwód ochronny Żarnowska, obwód ochronny Kluki, obwód ochronny Rowy (Polder Gardna IX), Słupsk

zasobów wodnych Pojezierza Łęczyńsko-Włodawskiego na podstawie historycznych materiałów kartograficznych i zapisów kronikarskich (Evaluation of changes in the use of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District water resources on the basis of historical cartographic materials and chronicles), [in:] Kaniecki A., Baczyńska A. (eds), Zmiany stosunków wodnych w czasach historycznych (Changes in water conditions in historical times), Bogucki Wyd. Nauk., Poznań: 167-186 (in Polish, English summary). Suchożebrska M., Chabudziński Ł.,2007, Anthropogenic Transformations of the