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obtained at irregular measurement intervals and containing missing observations. Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 1965-1974.
Gerelbaatar S., Baatarbileg N. 2011. Growth of Scotch Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Plantation in Northern Mongolia. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B1, 1205-1210.
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Bohdan Konôpka, Jozef Pajtík, Michal Bošeľa, Tomáš Hlásny and Zuzana Sitková
Diego, Academic Press, 411 p.
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Lindholm, M., Jalkanen, R., Salminen, H., Aalto
core models for major target variables, including diameter increment, heightincrement, crown ratio and mortality. Because management decisions often require precise and accurate predictions, existing individual tree growth models have been evaluated in many studies ( Sterba et al., 2001 ; Pretzsch, 2002 ; Kindermann and Hasenauer, 2007 ; Schmidt and Hansen, 2007 ).
Model evaluation provides end-users with information on the accuracy of the model. It gives insight into errors and deficiencies, and helps in improving the models. Model evaluation examines whether
Sławomir Ambroży, Tadeusz Zachara, Mariusz Kapsa, Elżbieta Chomicz-Zegar and Ruslan Vytseha
., Lode E. 2014. Heightincrement of understorey Norway spruces under different tree canopies. Forest Ecosystems 1: 4. DOI 10.1186/2197-5620-1-4.
Löf M., Bergquist J., Brunet J., Karlsson M., Welander N.T. 2010. Conversion of Norway spruce stands to broadleaved woodland – regeneration systems, fencing and performance of planted seedlings. Ecological Bulletins 53: 165–173.
Łukaszewicz J., Krajewski S., Kopryk W. 2010. Hodowla lasu w drzewostanach brzozowych na gruntach porolnych. Notatnik Naukowy Instytutu Badawczego Leśnictwa 3(90): 1–4.
Vladimír Šebeň, Michal Bošeľa, Bohdan Konôpka and Jozef Pajtí
This paper aims to quantify relationships between the biometric parameters of young, 15-year old spruce stands at the Experimental Site Vrchslatina. In 2011, 40 spruce trees were selected to cover four classes of bio-sociological status (dominant, co-dominant, sub-dominant, and suppressed - 10 individuals each). The trees were measured for their height increments (by recording the distances between the successive whorls) and the increments of lateral branches at all whorls. The sample trees were then cut down and discs were taken from the stem base. In the laboratory, the discs were measured for the annual ring widths using WinDendro software. We focused on detailed analyses of the relationship between the bio-sociological status of the trees on the radial and height increments. Minor differences were found in the increments in the newest lateral whorls. The ratio between height increments and lateral branch increments was found to be higher in dominant trees (height increments is two times higher than the increments on the lateral branches). Conversely, the smallest ratio was found in suppressed trees (the ratio was around 1). The ratio between tree height and diameter at the stem base, as well as the ratio between height and radial increments, was the smallest for dominant and the highest for suppressed trees. Hence, relationships between height and diameter increments (both annual and cumulative) proved to reflect competition intensity among trees.
Marzena Niemczyk, Anna Żółciak and Wrzesiński Piotr
The aim of this study was to evaluate the development of common yew, Taxus baccata L., with respect to canopy openness. The plants were growing in ex-situ conservation plantations (established in 2008) in the understory of different tree species. Eleven forest plantations belonging to the following five forest districts were inventoried: Rokita, Baligród, Kołaczyce, Międzylesie and Henryków. In each plantation, the height and height increment of 200 yews were measured and gap light transmission indices were determined.
The canopy species affecting yew growth most significantly were oak (Quercus sp.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), followed by Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.), silver fir (Abies alba L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The most favorable development of yew occurred at 30% canopy openness. An increasing light transmission index correlated with a decrease in the proportion of treelike yews. An insufficient amount of light resulted in a low height increment of yews growing under the canopy and an extended period of direct competition of yews with herbaceous species.
Kaspars Polmanis, Anita Baumane, Imants Baumanis and Solveiga Luguza
Climate changes are expected to create favourable conditions for development and spread of diseases. Therefore, the impact of meteorological factors on needle cast damage, and relationship between degree of damage and growth of trees had been assessed in the study. Analysis was carried out in open-pollinated progeny trial of Norupe seed orchard clones, established in the spring of 2006, in Ltd. “Rīgas meži” (LLC “Riga Forests”). In this trial needle cast damage was assessed in three consecutive years using a fivegrade scale, dependent on the level of damages on current year needles. At the end of each growing season a tree height was measured. Plantation was significantly affected by infection average more than 66% of current year damaged by the disease. Significant (p<0.001) correlation was detected between the degree of needle cast damage and tree height increment as well as the tree height. Significant (p<0.001) differences in needle cast infection level as well as tree height and height increment were found also between open-pollinated families. The results suggest a potentially increasing needle cast infection due to predicted increase of temperature and precipitation, as well as the potential to select more resistant families against damages of this disease in tree breeding process.