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Pure bone material obtained from cow meat, as apatite-rich material, and TiO2-bone composite materials are prepared and studied to be used for heavy metal ions separation from waste water solutions. Meat wastes are chemically and thermally treated to control their microstructure in order to prepare the composite materials that fulfill all the requirements to be used as selective membranes with high performance, stability and mechanical strength. The prepared materials are analyzed using Hg-porosimetry for surface characterization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) for elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for chemical composition investigation. Structural studies are performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Microstructural properties are studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area studies are performed using Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. XRD studies show that multiphase structures are obtained as a result of 1h sintering at 700–1200 °C for both pure bone and TiO2-bone composite materials. The factors affecting the transport of different heavy metal ions through the selected membranes are determined from permeation flux measurements. It is found that membrane pore size, membrane surface roughness and membrane surface charge are the key parameters that control the transport or rejection of heavy metal ions through the selected membranes.
It was examined if buckwheat hull has a potential to be used to adsorb heavy metal ions Zn(II), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) from water. The research involved experiments aimed at the determination of sorption kinetics taking into consideration changes of concentration in a solution and sorbent over time. According to the literature data, kinetics is described with the use of pseudo first-order equations. Application of fractional derivatives for the description of sorption kinetics enables the development of the generalised sorption kinetics equation. Result analysis with this concept requires making a computational procedure using gamma functions and infinite series. Kinetics description using fractional derivatives will be equations with two parameters ie fraction of derivative α and the kinetics constant K dependent on the analysed sorbent-adsorbate system.
Magnetite nanoparticles have become a promising material for scientific research. Among numerous technologies of their synthesis, co-precipitation seems to be the most convenient, less time-consuming and cheap method which produces fine and pure iron oxide particles applicable to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to investigate how the co-precipitation synthesis parameters, such as temperature and base volume, influence the magnetite nanoparticles ability to separate heavy metal ions. The synthesis were conducted at nine combinations of different ammonia volumes - 8 cm3, 10 cm3, 15 cm3 and temperatures - 30°C, 60°C, 90°C for each ammonia volume. Iron oxides synthesized at each combination were examined as an adsorbent of seven heavy metals: Cr(VI), Pb(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II). The representative sample of magnetite was characterized using XRD, SEM and BET methods. It was observed that more effective sorbent for majority of ions was produced at 30°C using 10 cm3 of ammonia. The characterization of the sample produced at these reaction conditions indicate that pure magnetite with an average crystallite size of 23.2 nm was obtained (XRD), the nanosized crystallites in the sample were agglomerated (SEM) and the specific surface area of the aggregates was estimated to be 55.64 m2·g-1 (BET). The general conclusion of the work is the evidence that magnetite nanoparticles have the ability to adsorb heavy metal ions from the aqueous solutions. The effectiveness of the process depends on many factors such as kind of heavy metal ion or the synthesis parameters of the sorbent.
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1 Introduction Thin film electrodes for heavymetalions detection in water by anodic stripping are widely used because of their simple fabrication, cost effectiveness, robustness, flexibility and reliability [ 1 , 2 ]. In these electrodes, active metal is fashioned over the surface of a conductive support. Doped metal enhances the current to voltage signal for the analytes and can detect heavy metals present in water up to ppb levels. Mercury [ 3 – 8 ], bismuth [ 9 – 11 ], gold [ 12 – 14 ], platinum [ 15 ] and tin [ 16 ] are examples of active metals reported
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