Ultrasonic welding is very useful for joining thin metal sheets [1, 2]. The effect of ultrasound on microstructure is currently not well understood because the changes produced depend very much on the welding parameters and the properties of the metal being considered. Thin sheets formed by cold rolling acquire a special grain structure. During the welding process the heat produced causes recrystallization; even where heat is not applied in the joining process the recrystallization process alters the mechanical properties within the heat affected zone (HAZ). The mechanical properties of the welded samples depend on the microstructure. In this work we analyse the ultrasonic welding effect on the joint and the HAZ [3, 4].
It is known that fusion welding can cause a decrease in the corrosion resistance of the heat affected zone of unstabilized stainless steels. The reason for this problem is that the welding heat (in the heat affected zone (HAZ)) can cause chromium-carbide (Cr23C6) precipitation with the simultaneous reduction of chromium content at the local grain boundaries. The chromium content dictates the corrosion resistance level. The relationship between surface roughness and corrosion behaviour is well known. We sought to find the difference between the corrosion resistance and surface roughness relationship in the case of cold rolled stainless steel and in the case of heat treated (welding heat effect simulated) stainless steel [1-3].
Implementation of Wavelet Denoising and Image Morphology on Welding Image for Estimating HAZ and Welding Defects Dibya
In the current work, a filtering scheme for measurement of area and perimeter of heat affected zone (HAZ) in welding has been proposed along with identification of defects like porosity in the fusion zone. A filtering scheme based on wavelet filtering, edge detection and morphology has been designed and implemented on a welding image for this purpose. To see the effectiveness of the wavelet based proposed filtering scheme, SNR is calculated and compared with the filtered image processed without wavelet denoising. Experimental results revel that the SNR improves by 45-65% when wavelet filtering is introduced in the filtering scheme. Crisscrosses of the boundary of HAZ were observed and compared. The wavelet based proposed filtering scheme enhances the HAZ boundary smoothness by 12.5% in comparison to the filtering scheme without using wavelet denoising. In the limiting case, for poor quality image of weldment, the deviation in measurement of HAZ by manual and proposed scheme is within 10%. Error in manual evaluation significantly contributes in the above deviation as the HAZ on the base metal side in the raw image is diffused and difficult to measure accurately.
The tests results of superduplex stainless steel welded joints made with a different heat input, using automatic submerged arc welding (SAW) and semi-automatic flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) have been presented. Metallographic examinations, the measurements of the ferrite content, the width of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the hardness of the welds in characteristic areas have been performed. Significant differences in the amount of ferrite in the weld metal and in the heat affected zone microstructure of joints were found.
A short survey is reported on the advantageous and disadvantageous properties of soft magnetic glassy tapes to build stator and rotor elements for the increase of motor efficiency. The relative high saturation magnetization and the relative permeability of these alloy groups seem to be promising in this application field. On the other hand, the sample thickness (30 µm) displays limitations in terms of a filling factor. High hardness of tapes hinders the effectivity of mechanical shaping. Laser cutting can be successful as shaping method, presuming that the extension (thickness) of heat affected zone (HAZ) can be successfully reduced below 50µm, avoiding the brittleness evolution.
Aneta Bartkowska, Dariusz Bartkowski, Damian Przestacki and Małgorzata Talarczyk
The paper presents the study results of macro- and microstructure, microhardness and corrosion resistance of C45 medium carbon steel and CT90 high carbon steel after diffusion boriding and laser modification by diode laser. It was found that the increase of carbon content reduced the thickness of boronized layer and caused change in their morphology. Diffusion boronized layers were composed of FeB and Fe2B iron borides. As a result of laser surface modification of these layers, the microstructure composed of three areas: remelted zone, heat affected zone (HAZ) and the substrate was obtained. Microhardness of laser remelting boronized layer in comparison with diffusion boronized layer was lower. The presence of HAZ was advantageous, because mild microhardness gradient between the layer and the substrate was assured. The specimens with laser boronized layers were characterized by better corrosion resistance than specimens without modified layer.
J. Tomków, D. Fydrych, G. Rogalski and J. Łabanowski
Wet welding is the most common method of welding in water environment. It is most often used for repairing of underwater parts of offshore structures. However, the water as a welding environment causes an increase of susceptibility of steels to cold cracking. For underwater constructions high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are widely used. In wet welding condition a HSLA steel is characterized by high susceptibility to cold cracking. Temper Bead Welding (TBW) was chosen as a method to improve the weldability of S460N steel. The studies showed that TBW technique causes significant decrease of maximum hardness of heat affected zone (HAZ). The largest decrease in hardness occurred in specimens with the pitches in range 66-100%.
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) of an Al-13%Si alloy matrix reinforced with 0, 3 and 6 wt% Al2O3 nanoparticles (nAl2O3) is performed and the optical microstructures, tensile strength, hardness and sliding wear properties of friction stir welded joints are investigated and compared to those of base materials. Four different zones of distinct appearances were observed during FSW, which exhibited altered microstructures in the nugget zone (NZ), thermo mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), heat affected zone (HAZ), and base material zone (BMZ). The ultimate tensile strength of the base materials and their welded joints were found to be increasing with increased wt% of nano-alumina reinforcements. High joint efficiency of 89-97% was achieved in FSW. Hardness and wear resistance of friction stir welded joints were found to be better than those of the base materials.
Electron beam welding, called electron welding consists in penetrating the elements being welded with heat obtained from the elements’ bombardment in vacuum with concentrated electron beam of high energy. Concentration of the electron beam of high kinetic energy in a very small space results in generating the heat of high concentration causing melting of material in high depth. During the metal melting the electron beam makes a narrow weld of little heat affected zone (HAZ). This paper presents the test results on selection of parameters of electron beam welding of 12 mm thickness sheets of AlMg3 aluminum alloy. The beam electron melting through was carried out in vacuum by means of the welding machine WS-15 KW/100 KV. Before melting, the sheets were degreased in tetrachloroethylene and oxides were removed with 15% solution Na2Co3. The influence of electron beam melting through of sheets on their mechanical properties was tested as well as resistance to stress corrosion cracking and resistance to corrosion in fast seawater flow (10 m/s). The slow strain rate stress corrosion tests in the air and artificial seawater were performed. It was found that electron beam melting through of the AlMg3 alloy does not decrease the mechanical properties in comparison to the native material. The crack during the static tension test had ductile character and proceeded in the native material. AlMg3 alloy melting with electron beam shows a very good stress corrosion resistance.
In this paper, metallographic examinations, characterising microstructural changes in the 713C superalloy subjected to remelting by GTA method, are presented. In the fusion zone, precipitation of M23C6 or M6C carbides based on chromium and molybdenum was observed. Eutectic mixtures of (γ-gg′)-MxCy type with highly developed morphology were also perceived. It was found that, in the matrix areas with non-homogeneous chemical composition, the eutectic reaction γ-γ′ can occur at the temperature close to that of the precipitation of the MxCy carbides. The presence of silicon in the carbide phases can be conducive to lowering their solidification point by creating low-melting compound NbSi. Both in the fusion zone (FZ) and in the heat-affected zone (HAZ), the secondary precipitates of the Ni3(AlTi)-γ′ phase, varying in size from 50 to 100 nm, were found. The lattice mismatch factor of the γ and γ′ particles was +0.48 % to +0.71 %, which is characteristic of the coherent precipitates of the Ni3Al phase enriched with titanium. No dislocations or stacking faults were observed in the microstructure of the FZ. In the HAZ, some primary undissolved γ′ precipitates, with a part of aluminium probably replaced with niobium were observed, which raised their melting point.