Nikolaj Perepravo, Vladimir Zolotarev, Aleksej Ševcov, Jurij Ahlamov, Sergej Otroško, Nikolaj Šarikov, Vladimir Kosolapov, Andrzej Marczuk and Jacek Caban
In case of traditional harvesting methods the losses of perennial grass seeds may reach 45-50% of the biological yield in unfavourable weather conditions. The paper presents the results of comparative assessment efficiency of various methods of harvesting of perennial seed grass. It was found that the use of special devices and structures in combine harvesters allows increase of yield of technological mixture to the combine tank, degree of seed threshing to 93% and limit the losses of crop to 20-29%. Harvesting of seeds in non-waste technology with harvesting of the entire yield with later transport, drying, threshing and seeds cleaning in stationary devices results in reduction of losses by 5 to 10% but it leads to the increase of energy inputs by 24-25% in comparison to traditional with threshing method. Harvesting with a combing method of plant seeds on a trunk in „Невейки” technology results in the increase of the seeds harvesting to 86-98% of a biological yield.
Archaeological fieldwork carried out at the Tell Arbid site in north-eastern Syria exposed settlement remains dating from the early 3rd millennium BC to the mid 2nd millennium BC. Recent excavations in Sector P, on the eastern slope of the site, revealed the existence of a significant occupation of the Post-Akkadian/ Early Jazirah V period and of levels dated to the Early and Classic Khabur Ware/Old Jazirah/Middle Bronze Age I-II periods. Cereal remains were dominated by grains and ear fragments of hulled two-rowed barley Hordeum distichon. Less numerous were wheats represented by emmer Triticum dicoccon, einkorn T. monococcum, and macaroni wheat T. durum. The presence of bread wheat T. aestivum and six-rowed barley Hordeum vulgare could not be excluded. The two periods contained similar sets of cereals, but in the Post-Akkadian Period the percentage of hulled wheat remains was higher, while in the Middle Bronze Age (particularly in its younger phase) naked wheat slightly exceeded hulled wheats. Legumes were represented by only very few seeds of lentil Lens culinaris and bitter vetch Vicia ervilia. Diaspores of wild plants were very abundant, particularly those from the families of grasses and legumes. The considerable number of ear and culm fragments probably belonging to cereals as well as numerous seeds/fruits of wild plants suggests that the plant remains originated from fodder or animal dung or belonged to threshing waste. The presence of grass stems with nodes indicated that cereals were reaped low on the straw; occasional use of uprooting was suggested by the occurrence of basal culm fragments with traces of rootlets.
M.R. Shahid, J. Farooq, A. Mahmood, M.S. Iqbal, K. Mahmood and H.G. Abbas
To evaluate resistance against sucking insect pest of cotton 16 cultivars were used along with their economic yield and fiber traits. Population of jassid, whitefly and thrips was recorded by using leaf turn method, yield of seed cotton was determined by hand harvesting method, while qualitative fiber properties were measured through high volume instrumentation (HVI) method. Best yield performance and staple length was of FH- 158 (4000 kg/ha) (28.1 mm), respectively. Cotton cultivar FH-172 showed resistance toward jassid and thrips but FH-158 showed resistance against jassid. Thus these resistance cultivars along with other cultivars possessing resistance against insect pest should be explored. Additional research should identify the part of one pest species on the yield and fiber quality of cotton by managing other pest species to define better management strategies.
Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is known as important commodity globally. The experiment was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan, Punjab-Pakistan, to evaluate resistance of nine innovative cotton cultivars against insect pest complex were used along with their fiber traits, economic yield and virus incidence. Population of jassid, whitefly and thrips was recorded by using leaf turn method, bollworms by counting whole fruiting parts (buds, flowers and bolls), virus by counting healthy and virus effected plants per plot, yield of seed cotton was determined by hand harvesting method, while qualitative fiber properties were measured through HVI spectrum-1 (high volume instrumentation) method. Cotton genotype NIAB-Bt-2 is resistant to jassid, whitefly and thrips with maximum GOT, staple length. In case of bollworms, all genotypes are resistant to spotted and american bollworm, except FH-142 and MNH-988. No genotype is resistant to pink bollworm in leftover bolls. Best yield performance was recorded on FH-142 (2041.54 kg/ha) with minimum CLCuV incidence. Further our research should recognize the share of one pest species on the yield and fiber quality of cotton by managing other pest species to define better management strategies. Our studies concluded that the genotype NIAB-Bt-2 has less insect attack i.e., sucking pest as well as bollworms, virus and other fiber characteristics like GOT, staple length as compared with other cotton genotypes should be recommended for general cultivation and being a resistant germplasm it should be included in breeding program for the development of new cotton strains.
The present research aimed to quantitatively and economically evaluate Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruit as a non-timber forest product for a resident rural community across three consecutive years. A forest stand of 50 hectares in Kalaleh village, Northwest of Iran (Arasbaran biosphere reserve), was selected. After estimating the number of stems per hectare, the rate of fruit production rate was determined. Forty five individuals were then selected and assessed for their vegetative characteristics, including total height (m), crown height (m), crown diameter (m), diameter at breast height (mm), number of coppice shoots and annual fruit production (kg). Relationships between the vegetative characteristics and fruit production were then determined using multiple regression analysis to estimate the total fruit production per ha (estimated number of stems per hectare x mean fruit production per stem). Questionnaires and interviews were conducted to determine the number of stakeholders, quantity of fruit harvested and their harvesting methods; in addition to the costs and revenues of the harvest. Our results indicated that in 2012, 2013 and 2014, the annual total fruit production and local harvesting rates were: (i) 17 500, 10 705 and 8 169 kg and (ii) 4 900, 6 540 and 6 700 kg respectively. The revenue from selling the fruit contributed from 3.6% to 7.3% to household livelihoods. Mean economic rent of Cornelian cherry utilization and the average expected value of the forest were US$ 52.9 and US$ 17.6 respectively, while the average marketing margin of utilization was 65.5%. We believe that the inflated harvest rate recorded in 2014, which was above the allowable quota, might be a crucial threat to viability and also the sustainability of the forest stand. In conclusion, launching and implementing non-timber forest products projects including tree domestication is required to help conserving biodiversity in one hand and to sustainably manage natural resources in the other hand.
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Elazar Fallik, Avital Bar-Yosef, Sharon Alkalai-Tuvia, Zion Aharon, Yaacov Perzelan, Zoran Ilić and Susan Lurie
cultivar and harvestmethod on postharvest storage quality of pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.) fruit. Postharv. Biol. Technol. 42: 243-247.
WURMS K.V., 2005. Susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea and curing-induced responses of lytic enzymes and phenolics in fruit of two kiwifruit ( Actinidia ) cultivars. NZ J. Crop Hortic. Sci. 33: 25-34.
Katarzyna Bączek, Ewelina Pióro-Jabrucka, Anna Pawełczak and Zenon Węglarz
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14. Mosakowska K. The effect of shading and harvestingmethod on plant development and quality of southern sweet-grass ( Hierochloë australis (Schrad.) Roem. et Schult). Master thesis prepared in Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants, WULS–SGGW. Warsaw 2014.
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