Einfluss von Stickstoffdüngung und Sorte auf den Ertrag und die Ertragskomponenten von Winterweizen
Eszter Sugár, Zoltán Berzsenyi, Tamás Árendás and Péter Bónis
sowing ratios ( Neugschwandtner and Kaul, 2014 ).
Harvestindex (HI) is a genetically determined trait and also depends on environmental conditions and the adaptation of the given genotype. Different opinions exist regarding the impact of N fertilization strategy on HI ( Sticksel et al., 2000 ). Data in the literature show that the effect of N fertilizer on HI increases with N-fertilizer application until the optimum N supply is reached, after which it decreases. However, the optimum N dose required to achieve maximum HI is debatable. Nevertheless, there is broad
In order to estimate the water requirement of barley and wheat by using of ET-HS model, a research was conducted at Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Iran. ET-HS model is used to determine irrigation water quantity and irrigation schedule for different crop. The study was based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications and six treatments. The irrigation treatments included irrigation to supply 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during growing season and control treatment (conventional irrigation), which was irrigation on the basis of 70 mm evaporation from Class A evaporation pan during growing season. In barley experiment, the highest values for number of fertile tiller, maximum LAI, total dry matter in maximum LAI stage, number of grain per spike, a thousand seed weight (35.56 g), grain yield (7877.9 kg/ha), biological yield (17689.7 kg/ha) and harvest index (44.45%) was obtained for irrigation according to 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model. In wheat experiment, the highest number of fertile spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield was obtained for irrigation treatment on the basis of 100% ET-HS model; moreover, the maximum harvest index was related to control treatment, followed by irrigation on the basis of 100% of ET-HS model. Conclusively, the appropriate irrigation treatment was 100% of crop water demand on the basis of ET-HS model during the growth season for both crops.
Agnese Kolodinska Brantestam, Linda Legzdiòa, Therese Cristensen, Jens Weibull, Roland von Bothmer, Sergey Martynov, Flemming Yndgaard and Isaak Rashal
. Stuttgart, Thesis, pp. 48-52.
Lasa, J. M., Igartua, E., Ciudad F. J., Codesal, P., García E. V., Gracia, M. P., Medina, B., Romagosa, I., Molina-Cano, J. L., Montoya, J. L. (2001). Morphological and agronomical diversity patterns in the Spanish barley core collection. Hereditas, 135, 217-225.
Madic, M., Kuburovic, M.. Kraljevic-Balalic, M., Petrovic, S. (2002). Varability and variance for harvestindex in winter barley. Acta Agr. Serbica, 14. 17-24.
Marquez-Cedillo. L.A., Hayes, P. M., Kleinhofs, A., Legge, W. G., Rossnagel
Mohammadjavad Seghatoleslami, Hassan Feizi, Gholamreza Mousavi and Aliasghar Berahmand
Normally the productivity of cropping systems in arid and semi- arid regions is very low. The sustainable agricultural systems try to find out environmental friendly technologies based on physical and biological treatments to increase crop production. In this study two irrigation treatments (control and water stress) and six methods of fertilizer treatment (control, NPK-F, using magnetic band- M, using silver nano particles- N, M+N and M+N+50% F) on performance of ajowan were compared. Results showed that treatments with magnetic field or base fertilizer had more yield compared to the control and silver nanoparticles (N) treatments. Application of silver nanoparticles had no positive effect on yield. The highest seed and biomass WUE achieved in base fertilizer or magnetic field treatments. Under water stress treatment, seed WUE significantly increased. In conclusion magnetic field exposure, probably by encourage nutrient uptake efficiency could be applied to reduce fertilizer requirement. On the other hand the cultivation of plants under low MF could be an alternative way of WUE improving.
The paper demonstrates the influence of different mineral fertilization with phosphorus and potassium on the concentration of copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) in the ear leaf of maize at the stage of flowering (BBCH 65) as well as the contents and accumulation of the nutrients studied in maize when fully ripe (BBCH 89). A single factor experiment was carried out in 5-year-cycle (2007-2011), in the randomized complete block design. The experiment was conducted as a part of a long-term stationary trial. The investigation comprised 8 different P and K treatments: the absolute control, exclusive of one of the main nutrients (P - WPN or K - WKN), reduced amount of phosphorus and potassium (to 25% - W25 and to 50% WP50, WK50) as well as recommended amounts of basic nutrients (NPKMg - W100 and NP*KMg, P* - P* as PAPR - W100 PAPR). Evaluation of the nutriational status, performed in the ear leaf of maize at flowering stage, showed that regardless of fertilization treatment applied, the concentration of copper was lower than normative values, whereas that of manganese ranged within the optimal scope. At the same time, there was found a significant relationship between the grain yield obtained and acquisition of both copper and manganese by maize at flowering stage (stronger for manganese, r = 0.614). The total accumulation of copper and manganese in fully ripe maize was significantly differentiated as a result of mineral fertilization. The total uptake of Cu and Mn was reduced under the conditions of 10-year lack of P fertilization. Uptake reduction was considerably more advanced when K fertilization was absent for 10 years. Regardless of the experimental factor effects, more than 50% of the total copper uptake was accumulated in grain, whereas the majority of manganese was accumulated in maize leaves (50-64% of the total uptake). Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between maize grain yield and the total accumulation of copper, whereas that of manganese was observed only in 3 of 8 treatments tested (WPN, WP50 and W100 as PAPR).
Javier Matías, Verónica Cruz, Antonio García and Diana González
ABOU-EL-ENIN, O. H. – FADE, J. G. – MACKILL, D. J. 1999. Differences in chemical composition and fibre digestion of rice straw with, and without, anhydrous ammonia from 53 rice varieties. In Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 79, pp. 129–136.
ABRAHAM, A. – MATHEW, A. K. – SINDHU, R. – PANDEY, A. – BINOD, P. 2016. Potential of rice straw for bio-refining: An overview. In Bioresource Technology, vol. 215, pp. 29–36.
AMANULLAH, J. – INAMULLAH, Z. 2016. Dry matter partitioning and harvestindex differ in rice genotypes with variable
Cheema M.A., Saleem M., Asghar Malik M., 2001 - Effect of row spacing and nitrogen management of agronomic traits and oil quality of canola (Brassica napus L.). Pak. J. Agri. Sci., 38(3-4):15-18.
Danesh-Shahraki A., Kashani A., Mesgarbashi M., Nabipour M., Koohi-Dehkordi M., 2008 - The effect of plant densities and time of nitrogen application on some agronomic characteristic of rapeseed. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi, 79:10-17 (In Persian).
DeLougherty R.L., Crookston R.K., 1978 - Harvestindex of corn affected by population density, maturity
Intercropping is an important and sustainable cropping practice in agroecosystems. Intercropping is a planting technique that farmers and gardeners can use to promote beneficial plant interactions and increases in biodiversity, enhanced production and lower economic risk. In the search for sustainable agricultural methods for medicinal plants, fenugreek and dill plants were intercropped at different additive (1:20, 1:40 and 1:60) and replacement (1:1, 1:2 and 1:3) series, at the Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. Field experiment was arranged as split plot based on randomized complete block design in three replicates. Dill umbels were harvested at flowering, pasty and complete ripening stages. Results showed that among harvesting times, pasty stage had maximum essential oil percentage, essential oil yield and harvest index of essential oil, whereas among intercropping patterns, 1:1 and 1:20 treatments had the maximum values. Fenugreek as a medicinal, forage and legume crop promote dill essential oil yield and harvest index and could be an effective plant in intercropping systems.
M.H. Shahrajabian, A. Soleymani, P.O. Ogbaji and X. Xue
To evaluate soil water consumption, changes in quantity and quality of winter wheat seed and forage under different irrigation treatments, an experiment was conducted in Beijing, China, in the 2012-2013. Irrigation treatments were (I1): irrigation before sowing, (I2): irrigation before sowing + before freezing; (I3): irrigation before sowing + before freezing + irrigation in the beginning of erecting stage + irrigation at flowering stage; (I4): irrigation before sowing + irrigation before freezing + irrigation at the booting stage + irrigation at flowering stage. The laid out of experiment was randomized complete block design, repeated six times. The effect of irrigation on total biological yield, grain yield and harvest index is significant. The highest mean soil water consumption in Oct., Nov., Dec., Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr. and May was obtained for lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 6 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 10 (I2), lysimeter 11 (I3), and lysimeter 10 (I2), respectively. The results from the study indicate that irrigation winter wheat throughout the booting stage and flowering stage increased grain yield, harvest index, potassium percentage, ash percentage of forage wheat at flowering stage, seed and forage protein percentage. Evapotranspiration trends increased steadily, especially in last three months, in which the lysimeter fields were covered by winter wheat completely.
A. Esmailpour, M. Hassanzadehdelouei and A. Madani
Integrated nutrient management strategies involving chemical and biologic fertilizer is a real challenge to stop using the high rates of agrochemicals and to enhance sustainability of crop production. In order to study the effects of livestock manure, chemical nitrogen, and biologic (Azotobacter) fertilizers on yield and yield components of wheat, an agricultural experiment in the form of split factorial design with three replications was conducted in Elam region, Iran. The aim of this research was assessment of the effects of these fertilizers separately and in integrated forms; and setting out the best fertilizer mixture. The results showed that treatment with livestock manure, Azotobacter and chemical nitrogen increased plant height, biological and grain yield. Using livestock manure and Azotobacter increased biologic yield through increase in plant height which cause to increase in grain yield without any significant changes in harvest index and other yield components, but the use of chemical nitrogen caused an increase in plant height, No. of spikelete/spike, No. of grain/spike, one thousand grain weight and harvest index, biologic and grain yield. In the light of the results achieved, we may conclude that using livestock manure and chemical nitrogen fertilizer together with the Azotobacter had the maximum impact on yield; and that we can decrease use of chemical fertilizers through using livestock manure and biologic fertilizers and to reach to the same yield when we use only chemical fertilizers.