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‘You can say – we do not want the junkies and the sex workers. But they are here!‘: On the spatial exclusion of anti-social behaviour in Bratislava - Nové Mesto

.) Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis, 34-61. New York: SAGE Publications. Kantola, J., Squires, J. (2004). Discourses Surrounding Prostitution Policies in the UK. European Journal of Women’s Studies , 11(1), 77-101. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1350506804039815 Keane, H. (2003). Critiques of harm reduction, morality and the promise of human rights. International Journal of Drug Policy , 2003(4), 227-232. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-3959(02)00151-2 Kitchin, R. (1998). ‘Out of Place’, ‘Knowing One’s Place’: Space, power and the exclusion of

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Social service and addiction treatment: rehabilitation or harm reduction?

marginalized in substance abuse treatment: Stories of homeless, active substance users in an urban harm reduction based drop-in center. Addiction Research & Theory 17 (6): 622-636 Nutley, S. & Walter, I. & Davies, H.T.O. (2003): From knowing to doing. A framework for understanding the evidence-into-practiceagenda. Evaluation 9 (2): 125-148 Orford, J. & Hodgson, R. & Copello, A. & John, B. & Smith, M. & Black, R. & Fryer, K. & Handforth, L. & Alwyn, T. & Kerr, C. & Thistlethwaite, G. & Slegg, G. on behalf of the UKATT

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Policy on drugs in Norwegian prisons: Increased control, answers to poverties and looking for a life after release

Norwegian prisons of clean syringes and needles for intravenous drug users]. Helsedirektoratet. (Ref. 31.10.2011. Online: http://www.helsedirektoratet.no/vp/multimedia/archive/00099/Tilgjengelighet_i_no_99349a.pdf) Fekjær, H.O. (2009): Rus: bruk, motiver, skader er behandling, forebygging, historie [Drug use, motives, harm, treatment, prevention history]. Oslo: Gyldendal akademiske forlag Fekjær, H.O. (1996): Skadereduksjon - nyttig eller skadelig? [Harm reduction: beneficial or harmful?] Introduction. Narkotikapolitiskforenings seminar

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Prison-based drug treatment in Finland: History, shifts in policy making and current status

Crimonology 48 (2): 119-137 Tammi, T. (2005): Discipline or contain? The struggle over the concept of harm reduction in the 1997 Drug Policy committee in Finland. International Journal of Drug Policy 16 (6): 384-392 Tammi, T. (2007): Medicalising prohibition. Harm reduction in Finnish and international drug policy. Vaajakoski: National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health. Research Report 161 Tanhua, H. & Virtanen, A. & Knuuti, U. & Leppo, A. & Kotovirta, E. (2011): Huumetilanne Suomessa 2011 [Finland - drug

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The role of e-cigarettes in the tobacco endgame

References Geidne, S., Backman, L., Edvardsson, I., & Hulldin, J. (2016). Prevalence and risk factors of electronic cigarette use among adolescents: Data from four Swedish municipalities. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 33 (3), 225–240. Public Health England (2015). E-cigarettes: An evidence update . London. Royal College of Physicians (2016). Nicotine without smoke: Tobacco harm reduction . London.

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Construction and handling of drug problems in Denmark from the 1870s to the 1980s

Abstract

AIM - To present a historical account of how addiction has been conceptualized and handled in Denmark from the 1870s to the 1980s. DESIGN - Analytically the account is inspired by elements from Michel Foucaults archeology of knowledge by focusing on how established ways of thinking, talking and acting in relation to drugs and drug use from time to time were challenged by changes with regard to which drugs were used, how they were used and by whom they were used. FINDINGS - The account is structured in four parts that covers the dominating ways of conceptualizing and handling drug related problems in four different periods. These periods are: (1) the era of ‘chronic morphinism’, (2) the era of ‘euphomania’ and the emergence of drug use as a criminological issue, (3) the era of ‘youth-euphomania’ and (4) the emergence of harm reduction as a way to conceptualize and handle drug related problems.

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Practice implications and recommendations for managing codeine misuse and dependence

Abstract

Codeine, a weak opiate, requires increased pharmacovigilance relating to availability, heterogeneous nature of misuse, dependence and associated harm. A scoping review of literature on codeine was conducted using Arksey & O’Malley’s framework (1). Databases searched included PubMed, EBSCO Host, Science Direct, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane library and Medline from 1994 to 2014. Follow-up search strategies involved hand searching and searching of pharmaceutical, health, medical and drug related websites. Initial zscreening identified 3,105 articles with 475 meeting the inclusion criteria. Eight broad categories organised the literature, data charting and qualitative synthesis. This paper presents implications for practice and makes recommendations to address these issues. Themes identified relate to raising public and practitioner awareness, risk management, dispensing practices and monitoring and surveillance of codeine. Evidence to inform law enforcement, drug surveillance, public health initiatives, harm reduction approaches, pharmacy, clinical and treatment practices is warranted.

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Governmental conceptions of the drug problem: A review of Norwegian governmental papers 1965–2012

Abstract

BACKGROUND - It is almost 50 years since the “new” drug problem appeared in Norway. How have central authorities conceived of the drug problem during these 50 years? On what have relevant policymaking and action been based? How has the government’s conceptions of the drug problem been expressed over the years? DATA - White papers, action plans, bills etc. RESULTS - A review of the main policy documents shows how Norway adopted strict penal measures from the outset, while recognizing at the same time the need to apply an interdisciplinary approach to drug abuse and initiate various support measures for drug users alongside the penal measures. In recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on seeing drug abuse as a health-related problem rather than one of control. Substance abuse is today perceived more in terms of dependency or as a disease, and harm reduction is increasingly seen as a pivotal aspect of policy. People with drug problems were known until recently as substance abusers, though the preferred term today is “drug dependents”. CONCLUSIONS - As such, one could say, Norway seems to have developed a “schizophrenic” view of the drug problem. On the one hand, the health aspects of drug abuse are increasingly central to thinking, while on the other penalties for drug offenses remain high. This health/penalty loop in turn seems to prevent the government from softening its stance on penalties - even if such a move were considered appropriate.

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A Robust Method for Estimating Human Smoked Cigarette Yields from Filter Analysis Data

Abstract

The analysis of spent filters from human-smoked (HS) cigarettes has been used to estimate cigarette yields for over three decades. Until recently, the whole filter was used for estimation; however a part-filter method has been shown to improve the accuracy of estimated HS yields. The part-filter method uses only the mouth-end portion of the filter, downstream of the ventilation holes, for analysis. In this portion, the filtration efficiency is relatively constant irrespective of typical puff flow rates of humans and also minimizes butt length effects (e.g. nicotine condensation) on filtration efficiency. Therefore, the estimations of HS cigarette yields are more robust to human smoking conditions than previous whole-filter methods.

British American Tobacco has adopted this method to obtain better understanding of how smokers actually use their products in their everyday environment. This can give information to help understand approaches to harm reduction. Since adopting this method, modifications and quality control features have been added to improve the accuracy of the estimation. This paper will describe in detail the methodology currently in use, along with sources of error, storage studies, quality control, repeatability and reproducibility.

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Stoltenberg i Finland?

Kuntaliitto. STM, selvityksiä 6 Tammi, T. (2007): Medicalising Prohibition. Harm Reduction in Finnish and International Drug Policy. Research report 161, Stakes.

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