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Measurement of growth performances in fish is carried out in stressful and unnatural environment. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effect of four different water-borne anesthetic agents. The fish (Ave. wt. 400.3±7.12 g) were divided into four groups in the glass tanks (80×48×30 cm) containing 80 L of dechlorinated bore water. For the first group we used clove oil (CO) and anesthetic agents used for other three groups were as follows: second group- lidocaine 1% (LC), III groupisoflourane (IF), IV group-halothane (HT). During experiment, water quality parameters (to, pH, О2, and NO3) were recorded. The desired concentration of anesthetics was established andinduction time, maintenance and recovery time were recorded. In two groups out of four (LC and HT) time of induction was longer approximately with 1 minute and time of recovery was shorter with 30 seconds in comparison with other two groups (CO and IF) where the time for both was 3 minutes. It could be concluded that the anesthetic time for each of the protocols used was about 4-5 minutes and allowed to measure the growth performance. An effective and safe agent is 1% lidocaine used as a water-based anesthetic at 100 mg.L-1. Isoflurane can be used with caution in small carp because there is a risk of overdose. We recommend the anesthetic clove oil protocol.


The prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is very controversial. There is no conclusive evidence for increased risk of malformations after SSRI use in pregnancy. The aim of the study was to determine how fluoxetine is affecting gestation and fetal development in rats. Twenty sexually mature female Wistar rats weighting between 250-260 g received 20 mg/kg body weight fluoxetine from the first day of gestation and during the entire gestation period.The drug was administered by oral route. Healthy, primipareus animals were selected along with 20 female Wistar rats, as control group. Mature males were caged with virgin females for an entire week. Rat’s behaviour during gestation, after birth and rats body weight was examined. The number of healthy pups was also noted. The females not giving birth after 21 days to any pup were anesthetized (halothane through gas scavenging apparatus untilled death) and the gravid uterus were dissected out and examined. Compared to the controlled group, in which weight gain was more significant, the animals from the experimental group had a slight increase in body weight. The weight gain normally induced by gestation, is less significant in fluoxetine treated rats due to the increase serotonin levels in the brain. The uteri examination of pregnant rats showed an increase in the number of dead and resorbed rat embryos. Preclinical studies suggest that the inclusion of fluoxetine in pregnancy category C is justified and the appropriateness of its administration in pregnancy is still an unresolved issue.


It is well known that neuronal death, clinically manifested as paresis or plegia, is the end result of many pathological events affecting the central nervous system. However, several aspects of pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the development of tetra- or paraplegia caused by spinal cord traumatic or ischemic damage are only insufficiently understood and their histopathological manifestations remain poorly documented. That is why the authors decided to report on light-microscopic changes observed in 30 μm thick spinal cord sections cut from L3-S1 segments processed by the Nauta staining method in a group of 6 dogs with ischemic paraplegia induced by 30 min of a high thoracic aorta occlusion, and in a different group of 6 dogs with traumatic paraplegia induced by 5 min spinal cord compression with 200 g metallic rod. Both experimental groups (ischemic and compression) of spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprised the same number of mongrel dogs of both sexes, weighing 18-25 kg. In addition, each of the experimental groups had 3 normal dogs that served as controls. All experimental procedures were accomplished under general anaesthesia induced by pentobarbital and maintained by a mixture of halothane and oxygen. Following the 72 hour survival period, all 18 animals were euthanized by transcardial perfusion with 3,000 ml of saline and fixed by 3,000 ml of 10 % neutral formaldehyde during deep pentobarbital anaesthesia. The histopathological manifestation of neural tissue damage caused by ischemia or compression was similar. The light-microscopic images in both groups were characterised by argyrophilia and the swelling of grey matter neurons. However, in the dogs with traumatic SCIs, the changes only reached about 750 μm cranially and caudally from the necrotic epicentre. These findings indicated that the events taking part in secondary spinal cord injury mechanisms are similar in both, ischemic as well as in traumatic SCI.

Identification of A Novel Mutation in RYR1 Gene in Malignant Hyperthermia-Like Patient's Family Members

Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare pharmacogenetic disorder with an autosomal dominant inheritance that presents as a hypermetabolic response in skeletal muscle to volatile anaesthetic (halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane) and the depolarising muscle relaxant succinil-choline and rarely to stresses such as vigorous exercise and heat. We investigated the relatives of an individual with suspected MH and found a novel mutation in RYR1 gene. The molecular analysis of RYR1 gene revealed a novel nucleotide substitution in exon 6 - G528T (Glu-176-Asp) in four family members of the patient. The in vitro contracture test (IVCT) according to the European Malignant Hyperthermia Group (EMHG) guidelines showed a MH susceptible phenotype in two tested family members.

Anaesthesia methods for surgical procedures, as well as for organ transplantation, have experienced remarkable changes over the past 40 years. Cadaveric renal transplant function may be impaired by haemodynamic instability induced by anaesthesia drugs. This study aimed to analyse the safety and effectiveness of the different anaesthesia methods used for renal transplantation in Latvia since 1973, with focus on its haemodynamic effects. In this retrospective study anaesthesia chart review was conducted for 607 patients (pts), aged 17-75 yrs, ASA III/IV, undergoing renal transplantation using general anaesthesia in the following periods: 1973-1990 (stage I - 282 pts); 1991-2000 (stage II - 145 pts); 2001-2011 (stage III - 180 pts). Haemodynamic data (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and central venous pressure) were measured prior to premedication and induction of anaesthesia, immediately afterwards, during the surgery and up to its completion with the special attention regarding the time of graft reperfusion. The main perioperative problems of the anaesthesia methods used during stage I (barbiturates, viadril, neuroleptanalgesics, sodium oxybutyrate, halothane, nitrous oxide) was haemodynamic instability in 60% of cases and apnea due to central depression and long-time peripheral neuromuscular blockade. Two patients died due to underlying comorbid conditions, including hyperhidration and oedema pulmonum. Substantial haemodynamic changes during total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol and combined anaesthesia propofol-isoflurane (stage II) were not observed. At the time of graft reperfusion, the incidence of hypotension was slightly higher in patients anaesthetised with isoflurane than in those who received sevoflurane (stage III), but this difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Kidney functioned immediately in 75% of cases and delayed function was observed in 25% of cases in sevoflurane and isoflurane groups. The modern anaesthetic agents provide a great margin of safety during renal transplantation. Total intravenous anaesthesia with midasolam-fentanyl-propofol and general anaesthesia with propofol-isoflurane, propofol-sevoflurane can be safely used. During renal transplantation, anaesthesiologists must optimise volume status, perfusion pressure and promote survival of the renal graft.

.A., Gispert M., Diestre A. (2004). Risk assessment of PSE condition due to pre-slaughter conditions and RYR1 gene in pigs. Meat Sci., 67: 471–478. Hamilton D.N., Ellis M., Miller K.D., Mc Keith F.K., Parrett D.F. (2000). The effect of the Halothane and Rendement Napole genes on carcass and meat quality characteristics of pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 78: 2862–2867. Janik A., Pieszka M., Migdał W. (2006). Effect of RYR1 genotype on carcass and meat quality in Polish Landrace pigs. Anim. Sci., 1: 70–71. Kasprzyk A., Babicz M., Kamyk-Kamieński P., Lechowski J. (2013). Slaughter

in total and ionized calcium during cardiac surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg. 24, 593–602. 8. Cote, C.J. (1987). Depth of halothane anesthesia potentiates citrate-induced ionized hypocalcemia and adverse cardiovascular events in dogs. Anesthesiology 67, 676–680. PMid:3674467 9. Lepage, R., Lepage, G., Racicot, C. (1999). Hypocalcemia induced during major and minor abdominal surgery in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 84, 2654–2658. PMid:10443655 10. Aguilera, I.M., Vaughan, R

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.1097/00004311-199603440-00008 Wass CT, Lanier WL, Hofer RE, et al. Temperature changes of_1°C alter functional neurologic outcome and histopathology in a canine model of complete cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology . 1995;83:325-35. doi:10.1097/00000542-199508000-00013 PMID:7631955 Warner DS, McFarlane C, Todd MM, et al. Sevoflurane and halothane reduce focal ischemic brain damage in the rat: possible influence on thermoregulation. Anesthesiology . 1993;79:985-92. doi:10.1097/00000542-199311000-00017 PMID:8239017 Clasen RA, Pandolfi S, Laing I, et al. Experimental study of relation of fever to

in German Landrace pigs at birth and market weight. Acta Veterinaria-Beograd 2014, 64 (3): 319-326. 10. Guàrdia MD, Estany J, Balasch S, Oliver MA, Gispert M, Diestre A: Risk assessment of PSE condition due to pre-slaughter conditions and RYR1 gene in pigs. Meat Sci 2004, 67: 471-478. 11. Nanni Costa L, Lo Fiego DP, de Grossi IA, Russo V: Combined effects of pre-slaughter treatments and lairage time on carcass and meat quality in pigs of different halothane genotype. Meat Sci 2002, 61: 41-47. 12. Warriss PD: Optimal lairage times and conditions for slaughter pigs