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The First Haemolymph Analysis of Nhandu Chromatus Tarantulas — Biochemical Parameters

-Verlag, Berlin 15—25. 12. Zachariah, T. T., Mitchell, M. A., Guichard, C. M., Singh, R. S., 2007: Haemolymph biochemistry ranges for wild caught Goliath Birdeater spiders ( Theraphosa blondi ) and Chilean Rose spiders ( Grammostola rosea ). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine , 38, 245—251.

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Nosema Ceranae DNA in Honey Bee Haemolymph and Honey Bee Mite Varroa Destructor/DNK Nosema Ceranae U Hemolimfi Pčela I Pčelinjem Krpelju Varroa Destructor

Abstract

Honey bee mite Varroa destructor and microsporidium Nosema ceranae are currently considered the most important threats to honey bees and beekeeping. It has been believed that both N. apis and N. ceranae invade exclusively epithelial cells of the honey bee ventriculus. However, some fi ndings suggest that these microsporidia may infect other tissues of honey bees. There are indications that these pathogens could be found in honey bee haemolymph, as the medium for its distribution to anatomically distant tissues. Knowing that V. destructor being an ectoparasitic mite feeds on the honey bee’s haemolymph, the aim of this study was to investigate if DNA of Nosema spp. microsporidia could be found in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor.

The study was conducted on bee haemolymph and V. destructor mites from 44 Apis mellifera colonies. From each hive five mite individuals and 10 μL of haemolymph (from 4-5 bees) were used as samples for DNA isolation and PCR detection of Nosema spp.

The DNA of N. ceranae was confi rmed in 61.36% of V. destructor mites and 68.18% of haemolymph samples. This is the first report of N. ceranae DNA in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor mites. The finding of DNA of N. ceranae in V. destructor could be interpreted as the result of mite feeding on N. ceranae infected bee haemolymph. However, for a full confi rmation of the vector role of V. destructor in spreading of nosemosis, further microscopy investigations are required for the detection of spores in both investigated matrices (haemolymph and V. destructor internal tissues).

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The sublethal effects of (2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid (2,4-D) on narrow-clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823)

Abstract

2,4-D is a widely used phenoxy herbicide, potentially toxic to humans and biota. The objective of the present study was to reveal short term sublethal effects of 2,4-D on narrow-clawed freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823), based on histology, total haemocyte counts, selected haemolymph parameters, and oxidative stress parameters. In the laboratory conditions crayfish specimens were exposed to 9 mg L-1 of 2,4-D for one week. Experiments were conducted under semi-static conditions in 20 L-capacity aquaria where 10 freshwater crayfish were stocked per aquarium. Exposure (experimental) and control groups were used and the experiments were repeated two times. No mortality and behavioural changes were recorded during the experiments. Total haemocyte counts decreased significantly, while haemolymph glucose levels increased (P<0.05), when compared to the control group. Haemolymph levels of calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium, total protein, and lactate did not change. Exposure resulted with increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) only in hepatopancreas. However, results of gill FOX assay showed a significant decrease in oxidative stress parameters (P<0.05). MDA levels of gill and abdominal muscle tissues and FOX levels of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissues did not change when compared to the control group. Significant histopathological alterations were observed both in hepatopancreas (multifocal deformations in tubule lumen) and gill tissue (melanisation of gill lamella). Exposure of crayfish even to a sublethal concentration of 2,4-D alters histopathology and lipid peroxidation due to stress. Biomarkers studied here seem to be useful for the assessment of adverse/toxic effects of pesticides on non-target, indicator aquatic organisms.

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Biochemical composition of two giant pill-millipedes of the Western Ghats of India

. K. 1971. On the free amino acids in the haemolymph of a millipede. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B 38: 1-4. Nakamura K.,Taira J. 2005. Distribution of elements in the millipede, Oxidus gracilis C. L. Koch (Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae) and the relation to environmental habitats. Biometals 18: 651-658. O’Brien D. M. 1999. Fuel use in flight and its dependence on nectar feeding in the hawkmoth Amphion floridensis. J. Exp. Biol. 202: 441-451. Oonincx D. G. A. B., Van Itterbeeck J., Heetkamp M. J. W., Van Den Brand H., Van

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The body composition and enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism of Varroa destructor

References Ball B. (1994) Host-parasite-pathogen interactions. In: Matheson A. (Ed.) New perspectives on Varroa. IBRA. Cardiff. UK. pp. 5-11. Blatt J., Roces F. (2001) Haemolymph sugar levels in foraging honeybees (Apis mellifera carnica): dependence on metabolic rate and in vivo measurement of maximal rates of trehalose synthesis. British Journal of Experimental Biology 204: 2709-2716. Borsuk G., Czerska K., Olszewski K., Strachecka A., Paleolog J., Chobotow J. (2012) Aktualny stan wiedzy o Varroa

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Analysis of Galleria mellonella hemolymph proteins profile after metalloproteinase immune challenge

impair phagocytic activity, attachment and spreading of plasmatocytes isolated from haemolymph of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella . Biocontrol. Sci. Technol. 8, 517-531. Griesch J., Wedde M., Vilcinskas A., 2000. Recognition and regulation of metalloproteinase activity in the haemolymph of Galleria mellonella : a new pathway mediating induction of humoral immune responses. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 30, 461-472. Hultmark D., Engström Å., Andersson K., Steine H., Bennich H., Boman H. G. 1983. Insect immunity

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The influence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa secreted virulence factors on hemocyte-mediated immune response of Galleria mellonella

-429. Richards E. H., Parkinson N. M. 2000. Venom from the endoparasitic wasp Pimpla hypochondriaca adversely affects the morphology, viability, and immune function of hemocytes from larvae of the tomato moth, Lacanobia oleracea. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 76, 33-42. Rohloff L. H., Wiesner A., Gotz P. 1994. A fluorescence assay demonstrating stimulation of phagocytosis by haemolymph molecules of Galleria mellonella. J. Insect Physiol. 40, 1045-1049. Salzet M. 2001. Vertebrate innate immunity resemebls a mosaic of

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Management of the Greater Wax Moth Galleria mellonella with Neem Azal- T/S, in the Laboratory and under Semi-Field Conditions

of Agriculture and Biology , 14 , 629-632. Brar, H.S., Gatoria, G.S., Jhaji, H.S., Chahal, B.S. (1985). Seasonal infestation of Galleria mellonella and population of Vespa orientalis in Apis mellifera apiaries in Punjab. Indian Journal of Ecology , 12 , 109-112. Burges, M.D. (1978). Control of wax moth: physical, chemical and biological methods. Bee World , 59(4), 129-138. Buyükgüzel, E., Hyrsl, P. & Buyukguzel, K. (2010). Eicosanoids mediate haemolymph oxidative and antioxidative response in larvae of Galleria mellonella L

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Phenoloxidase activity in hemolymph of Galleria mellonella larvae challenged with Aspergillus oryzae

Galleria mellonella hemocytes in melanin formation. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 29, 232-234. Shi L., Li B., Paskewitz S. M. 2006. Cloning and characterization of a putative inhibitor of melanization from Anopheles gambiae. Insect Mol. Biol. 15, 313-320. Slepneva I. A., Komarov D. A., Glupov V. V., Serebrov V. V., Khramtsov V. V. 2003. Influence of fungal infection on the DOPA-semiquinone and DOPA-quinone production in haemolymph of Galleria mellonella larvae. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 300, 188-191.

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Effects of mustard oil cake on liver proteins of Channa punctatus (Bloch)

on some physiological parameter and antioxidants in Tilapia niloticus and Siluriforms fish. N Y Sci J 6 (4): 85–92. Aliko V, Hajdaraj G, Caci A, Faggio C. (2015). Copper Induced Lysosomal Membrane Destabilisation in Haemolymph Cells of Mediterranean Green Crab ( Carcinus aestuarii , Nardo, 1847) from the Narta Lagoon (Albania). Braz. Arch. Biol. Technol 58 (5): 750–756. Bartoskova M, Dobsikova R, Stancova V, Zivna D, Blahova J, Marsalek P, Zelníckova L, Bartos M, Di Tocco FC, Faggio C. (2013). Evaluation of ibuprofen toxicity for zebrafish

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