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Honey bee mite Varroa destructor and microsporidium Nosema ceranae are currently considered the most important threats to honey bees and beekeeping. It has been believed that both N. apis and N. ceranae invade exclusively epithelial cells of the honey bee ventriculus. However, some fi ndings suggest that these microsporidia may infect other tissues of honey bees. There are indications that these pathogens could be found in honey bee haemolymph, as the medium for its distribution to anatomically distant tissues. Knowing that V. destructor being an ectoparasitic mite feeds on the honey bee’s haemolymph, the aim of this study was to investigate if DNA of Nosema spp. microsporidia could be found in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor.
The study was conducted on bee haemolymph and V. destructor mites from 44 Apis mellifera colonies. From each hive five mite individuals and 10 μL of haemolymph (from 4-5 bees) were used as samples for DNA isolation and PCR detection of Nosema spp.
The DNA of N. ceranae was confi rmed in 61.36% of V. destructor mites and 68.18% of haemolymph samples. This is the first report of N. ceranae DNA in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor mites. The finding of DNA of N. ceranae in V. destructor could be interpreted as the result of mite feeding on N. ceranae infected bee haemolymph. However, for a full confi rmation of the vector role of V. destructor in spreading of nosemosis, further microscopy investigations are required for the detection of spores in both investigated matrices (haemolymph and V. destructor internal tissues).
A. Çağlan Karasu Benli, Duygu Şahin, Rabia Sarıkaya, Burcu Koçak Memmi and Aylin Sepici Dinçel
2,4-D is a widely used phenoxy herbicide, potentially toxic to humans and biota. The objective of the present study was to reveal short term sublethal effects of 2,4-D on narrow-clawed freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823), based on histology, total haemocyte counts, selected haemolymph parameters, and oxidative stress parameters. In the laboratory conditions crayfish specimens were exposed to 9 mg L-1 of 2,4-D for one week. Experiments were conducted under semi-static conditions in 20 L-capacity aquaria where 10 freshwater crayfish were stocked per aquarium. Exposure (experimental) and control groups were used and the experiments were repeated two times. No mortality and behavioural changes were recorded during the experiments. Total haemocyte counts decreased significantly, while haemolymph glucose levels increased (P<0.05), when compared to the control group. Haemolymph levels of calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium, total protein, and lactate did not change. Exposure resulted with increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) only in hepatopancreas. However, results of gill FOX assay showed a significant decrease in oxidative stress parameters (P<0.05). MDA levels of gill and abdominal muscle tissues and FOX levels of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissues did not change when compared to the control group. Significant histopathological alterations were observed both in hepatopancreas (multifocal deformations in tubule lumen) and gill tissue (melanisation of gill lamella). Exposure of crayfish even to a sublethal concentration of 2,4-D alters histopathology and lipid peroxidation due to stress. Biomarkers studied here seem to be useful for the assessment of adverse/toxic effects of pesticides on non-target, indicator aquatic organisms.
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