The aim of the research was to determine the effect of initial spacing on the survival and growth of pine trees in dry coniferous and fresh coniferous forest habitats after nearly 40 years from the establishment of plantation.
The study presents an analysis of seven spacing variants in square, rectangular and triangular spacing patterns with the initial density ranging from 6 944 seedlings/ha to 15 625 seedlings/ha. The studies were conducted on two study sites. No tending treatments (selective thinning) were performed in the examined stands throughout the growing season.
It was shown that habitat conditions had a significant effect on the survival, diameter and height growth of trees in pine stands. In the less productive forest habitat, where the competition of trees is smaller, the survival was 1.5 to 2-fold higher compared to the more productive habitat. Pine trees growing in the fresh coniferous forest had substantially larger diameters at breast height (dbh) compared to the dry coniferous forest. The spacing effect depended on the habitat conditions. This influence was stronger in the less productive habitat compared to the more productive forest habitat which was reflected in the greater differences in the discussed parameters. The average dbh value of all trees on the Płock site increased with the increase of tree growing space (i.e. lower initial planting density) and ranged from 8.24 cm in variant A (15 625 seedlings/ha) to 9.79 cm in variant C (6 944 seedlings/ha). On the Łąck site, the trees growing at a low density (variants C and E) had significantly larger diameters compared to the trees growing at a density from 10 000 plants/ha to 15 625 plants/ha (spacing variants A, B, F, G). The studies also showed a significant effect of the habitat conditions and initial spacing on the diameter of pine trees in biosocial class I.
Triangular spacing in the fresh coniferous forest was found to have more positive effect on tree diameter growth. It is consistent with the findings of other authors that trees planted in triangular spacing make better use of space which is positively reflected in their growth. The results obtained from the research allow to formulate the conclusion that habitat conditions have a significant effect on the survival, diameter and height growth of trees in pine stands. The research also showed a significant effect of initial spacing on the diameter at breast height of pines at the end of age class II. No dependence was found of the initial planting density on the height growth rate of trees. In both forest habitats under consideration, trees planted at a density of approximately 11.5 thousand plants per hectare were the highest. The triangular initial spacing pattern had a positive effect on this characteristic.
Academic Publishers, Dortrecht-Boston-London, p. 357. Strzałek M., Koperski P., 2009, The Stratiotes aloides L. stand as a habitat in oxbow lake Bużysko, Aquat. Bot. 90: 1-6. Urban D., Wójciak H., 2006, Aquatic plant communities of the Lemnatea minoris R. Tx. 1955 class in the Bug valley old river-beds against the habitatconditions, Teka Kom. Ochr. Kszt. Środ. Przyr. 3: 241-249. Wojciechowska W., Pasztaleniec A., Solis M., 2007, Diversity and dynamics of phytoplankton in floodplain lakes (Bug River, eastern Poland), Oceanol. Hydrobiol. Stud. 36: 199-208. Vollenweider
The objective of the study is the presentation of the chemical properties of forest chernozems and the features of forest habitats developed on chernozems in south-eastern Poland. The assessment of the trophic status of chernozems was presented based on the Trophic Soil Index (SIG). Moreover, the paper presents the diversity of forest vegetation on chernozems. The research covered 15 plots from the habitat inventory performed for the Mircze and Strzelce Forest Districts (SE Poland). Habitat conditions were characterised on the research plots, with particular consideration of the soil and vegetation. The analysed soils were featured by the presence of thick humus horizons and the occurrence of calcium carbonate. High SIG values confirm the eutrophic status of the analysed soils. In general, fresh and wet habitats of broadleaved forests (Lśw and Lw), as well as fresh habitats of broadleaved upland forest (Lwyżśw) develop on chernozems in Poland. They are associated with multi-species broadleaved tree stands. The conducted research indicates that, in current environmental conditions, the potential plant community is oak-hornbeam forest with predominance of oak, hornbeam, and abundant admixtures of other broadleaved species. High trophic status of the analysed chernozems is confirmed by high bonitation of tree stands and richness of forest floor vegetation.
Gl of 74% ( Cedro, 2007 , 2013 ). The similarity of complex chronologies for pear trees in Bielinek and Biedrusko is much lower: Student’s t of 4.6, correlation coefficient of 0.43, and Gl of 57% ( Fig. 4 ). This is confirmed by different growth climate responses (analysis of pointer years, correlation, and response function). Probably the different growth responses are due to different habitats, and especially the extreme habitatconditions in Bielinek (steep, sunny slopes, lower precipitation). Comparison of the wild pear indexes chronologies (BIE and GR
The paper presents information about habitat conditions of occurrence of the Ptychoverpa bohemica (Krombh.) Boud. fungus in man-made habitats in Silesian Upland in southern Poland. Soil samples were collected from 5 sites in order to measure the contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio and percentage of organic matter, as well as the values of pH and electric conductivity. Lists of plants associated with Ptychoverpa bohemica were also prepared. Results of the investigation show that pH values of analysed soils are neutral to slightly acidic, they show negligible salinity, and the content of organic carbon, nitrogen and organic matter are higher in their upper levels. The floristic composition of patches with Ptychoverpa bohemica usually consists of species which are common in urban areas, such as apophytes and anthropophytes, for example: Betula pendula, Brachythecium rutabulum, Epipactis helleborine, Pinus sylvestris, Populus tremula, Quercus robur, Salix caprea and Sorbus aucuparia.
The paper presents results of a study on the population structure of the orchid Liparis loeselii growing in the Warta River valley peat bog in Myszków (Woźnicko-Wieluńska Upland, S. Poland). Individuals of L. loeselii occurred in patches of Menyantho trifoliatae-Sphagnetum teretis and Eleocharitetum pauciflorae – associations. The demographic structure of L. loeselii populations was described by variations in plant height, the length and width of leaves and the number of flowers of the constituting individuals. It was observed that habitat conditions such as conductivity, pH and the percentage cover of tall perennials had the strongest effect on the structure of L. loeselii populations.
glandulifera (Balsaminaceae). Diversity Distrib. 10: 377-385. Kondracki J. 2000. Geografia regionalna Polski. 440 pp. PWN, Warszawa. Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt K. & Zając M. 2014. The influence of habitatconditions on the performance of two invasive, annuals - Impatiens glandulifera and Bidens frondosa Biologia 69(4): 449-462. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/s11756-014-0333-4 Murph y G. P. & Dudley S. A. 2009. Kin recognition: Competition and cooperation in Impatiens (Balsaminaceae). Am. J. Bot. 96(11): 1990-1996. http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0900006 Lamb don P. W., Pyšek P., Basnou
Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.
The transfer of toxic metals from soil to honey was studied based on two different areas of the Podkarpackie region located in the south-east part of Poland: U-urbanized and E-ecologically pure. The metal content was determined using the ICP-OES method with prior microwave mineralization of the soil, plant (goldenrod, dandelion, rapeseed, tilia and fir), bee bodies and honey samples collected from 10 sampling points (U-5 and E-5). The impact of soil pH on heavy metal mobility was also evaluated. It was found that Podkarpackie soils are less contaminated with heavy metals as compared to other regions of Poland and only in the case of cadmium an enhancement of the natural background level was observed. The migration of heavy metals, especially cadmium, in the soil-plant-bee-honey food chain was accelerated by soil acidity (p<0.05). The influence of human activity (region development) on heavy metals concentrations was not significant (p>0.05). Based on bioaccumulation factors, goldenrod and dandelion plants were confirmed as cadmium accumulators. It was also confirmed that the bodies of bees act as an effective barrier to the migration of heavy metals from the environment to honey, due to this, honey is free from these metals and safe for human consumption.