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References [1] Bronowicz, J., Obliczenia obciążeń zewnętrznych wirnika wiatrakowca Fusioncopter FC-4 dla przypadków lotnych według wymagań przepisów CS-27 , FC.w2.Dob.jbr.016.ver1, Świdnik 2013. [2] CAP 643 – British Civil Airworthiness requirements. Section T Light gyroplanes, 9 May 2013. [3] Cieślak, S., Instability of the gyroplane teetering rotor in axial flow , Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, No. 2 (235), pp. 28-37, Warsaw 2015. [4] CS-27 – Certification Specifications for Small rotorcraft, change 3, 11 December 2012. [5] Obciążenia łopat i

Aeromechanics, San Francisco, California, 21th - 23th January, 2004. [7] Harwood P., Flying ‘New Generation’ Gyrocopter, A guide for converting pilots! http://www.gyrocopterschool.com/gyrocopter-autogyro-gyroplane/how-to-fly-gyros/ [8] http://airfoiltools.com/airfoil/details?airfoil=n8h12-il [9] http://wirnikautorotacyjny.pl/ , website of the project “Modern Gyroplane Main Rotor”, (UDA-POIG.01.03.01-14-007/12), co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Programme Innovative Economy 2007-2013. [10] Nocedal J. and Wright S.J., 2006, Numerical

Abstract

Gyroplanes, as ultralight aircraft, are popular transport vehicles recently. Ultralight aircraft flights take place at a low altitude – their noise is not without effect on people and nature. The localization of the sources of noise and a possibility to decrease the noise of an gyroplane are described in this paper. The rules of design and exploitation of gyroplanes do not define the limits of emitted noise.

Gyroplanes are not noisy aircraft vehicles but for their silencing the knowledge about the sources and frequency range of noise is necessary. The goal of the conducted measurement was to determine the gyro-plane noise properties and the noise measurement methods. The evaluation of the noise sources was made by acoustic beamforming and the directional emission with single microphones at various engine speeds.

The supplement of these tests should be the rotor noise measurement but that investigation should be performed on a special stand, on which the rotor propulsion noise would not disturb the measurement.

References [1] Bramwell, A. R. S., Done, G., Balmford, D., Bramwell’s Helicopter Dynamics , Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001. [2] Cheol-Yong, Y., et al., Dynamic Characteristics of Helicopter Bearingless Main Rotor , Journal of the Korean Society Aeronautical and Space Sciences, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 439-446, 2016. [3] Cieślak, S., I nstability of the gyroplane teetering rotor in axial flow , Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, No. 2 (235), pp. 28-37, Warsaw 2014. [4] Kania, M., Modeling of helicopter blades flapping in CATIA V5 , Postępy nauki i techniki, No

References [1] Czyż, Z., Łusiak, T., Czyż, D., Kasperek, D., Analysis of the pre-rotation engine loads in the autogyro , Advances in Science and Technology, Vol. 10, No. 31, pp. 169-176, 2016. [2] Duda, H., Pruter, I., Flight performance of lightweight gyroplanes , 28th International Congress of the Aeronautical Sciences, Brisbane, Australia 2012. [3] Niemi Jr., E. E., Raghu Gowda, B. V., Gyroplane rotor aerodynamics revisited – blade flapping and RPM variation in zero-g flight , 49th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting including the New Horizons Forum and

Basic indications: CAA – Civil Aviation Authority FAR – Federal Aviation Regulations ASTM – American Society of Testing and Materials POH – Pilot Operating Handbook TDP – Take-Off Decision Point, LDP – Landing Decision Point BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Katyshev G.I., 1986, “Sozdatel avtozhyra Juan de la Cierva (1895-1936)” (in Russian: “Создатель автожира Хуан де ла Сьерва (1895-1936)”), M, Science (Наука), p. 160. [2] Van Wagenen, J., 2014, “CAA Removes Overflight Restrictions on Gyroplanes” Aviation Today, from http

Abstract

The aerodynamic research into models of an aircraft aims at creating the main characteristics of aerodynamic forces and moments and the aerodynamic characteristics of coefficients of aerodynamic forces and moments, based on real dimensions. The method of 3D printing was used to create a model of an aircraft. The model with the previously set printing parameters and commands for a 3D printer, in the right order, was imported into MakerBot Print. The final stage was printing the model. The printed components of the model of an aircraft were imperfect due to the incorrectly set printing parameters. The model with the previously set printing parameters and commands for a 3D printer, in the right order, was imported into MakerBot Print. The final stage was printing the model. The printed components of the model of an aircraft were imperfect due to the incorrectly set printing parameters. The printing parameters were corrected in the next printing sessions so the surfaces of the components were good enough and grinding was unnecessary. Some excess material was removed in each of the printed components, and the slots were cleaned. Then, the individual models were put together.

The article describes the technique of creating a model of an aircraft to map its exact geometry for experimental wind tunnel research. 3D printing enables us to experimentally investigate a created geometry, in particular to investigate further prior to releasing an aircraft to service. The 3D model employs the model created in line with the previous CFD analysis.

References [1] Leishman, J. G., Principles of Helicopter Aerodynamics , Cambridge University Press, 2000. [2] Wheatey, J. B., Hood, M. J., Full-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests of Autogyro Rotor , NACA Report No. 515, 1935. [3] Charnov, B. H., From Autogyro to Gyroplane , Westport Conn, 2003. [4] Harrison, J. P., The Cierva Autodynamic Rotor , NASA Report No. TP-218714, 2015. [5] Jefflewis Net., Autogyro History and Theory, https://pl.scribd.com/document/254272804/Autogyro-History-and-Theory . [6] Dziubiński, A., Ulma, D., Żurawski, R., CFD Analysis of Tail Surface

References [1] Collins, P., Moore, C., Solutions to helicopter blade erosion improving aircraft availability and reducing costs , 40th European Rotorcraft Forum, 2014. [2] Czechyra, T., Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Blade Airfoil Shape Deformation on Helicopter Main Rotor Model Loads in Hover, Transaction of the Institute of Aviation, No. 2-3 (177-178), pp. 86-92, 2004. [3] Sobieszek, A. Wojtas, M., Composite rotor blades tests essential before mounting on gyroplane, Journal of KONES, 1231-4005, 2354-0133, pp. 487-494, 2016. [4] Thomas, W

, F., Review of Active Rotor Control Research in Canada , International Journal of Aeronautical and Space Science, Vol. 12 (2), pp. 93-114, 2011. [5] Sobieszek, A., Wojtas, M., Composite rotor blades tests essential before mounting on gyroplane, Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 23, No. 4, pp. 487-494, 2016. [6] Szczepanik, T., Analysis of the state of the gyroplane world market , Transactions of the Institute of Aviation, No. 3 (244), pp. 227-238, Warsaw 2016. [7] Żurawski, R., Bezpieczne wykonywanie prób prototypów obiektów wirujących