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Literature 1. Green A. (2013). Education and state formation: The rise of education systems in England, France and the USA . Basingstoke: Palgrave. 2. Baker C. (2005). Cultural studies: Theory and practice . London: Sage. 3. Lindroth J. (2004). Ling: From greatness to dissolution: Studies in Swedish history of gymnastics . Eslöv: Symposion. [in Swedish] 4. Olsson G. (2003). A Gap: A study in physical and mental development of communication based on a primary school class . Doctoral Thesis, Stockholm University. [in Swedish] 5. Hammarberg L. (2001). A sound

References Abrahan A, Collins D, Martindale R. The coaching schematic: validation through expert coach consensus. J Sport Sci , 2006; 24: 549-564 Anshell JR. Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications (4th ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman and Company; 1995 Antonelli F, Salvini A. The personality of 168 basket arbiters and 119 cycling judges. Int J Sport Psychol , 1975; 6: 229-233 Boen F, Van Hoye K, Auweele Y, Feys J, Smits T. Open feedback in gymnastics judging causes conformity bias based on informational influencing. J Sport Sci , 2008; 26: 621-628 Bromme R

Introduction The relationship between the competition score and physical fitness variables in rhythmic gymnastics has been examined in a number of previous studies ( Bobo-Arce and Mendez-Rial, 2013 ; Hume et al., 1993 ; Rutkauskaite and Skarbalius, 2009 ). Anthropometric variables such as body composition, the arm span and mid-thigh circumference, have been suggested as significant determinants of the rhythmic gymnastics competition score ( Douda et al., 2008 ; Purenovic-Ivanovic and Popovic, 2014 ). Physical fitness variables such as flexibility, explosive

Introduction In artistic sports like rhythmic gymnastics (RG), the performance in competition is evaluated by judges that apply a tool (Code of Points) and give a score that determines the value of the routine and the position of the gymnast in the final ranking. Since the performance does not come out from an objective measure, but from a complex judging process, quite often RG is considered to be a subjective sport ( Gateva, 2014 ). Recent research has paid attention mainly to the experience and the capacity of the judges to use cognitive and perceptual

Literature 1. Seredyński A. (2008). Acrobatic gymnastics: a description of the discipline, a set of rules and principles of judging, and a classification of acrobatic exercises. Rzeszów: Uniwersytet Rzeszówski. [in Polish] 2. Przewęda R., Dobosz J. (2006). The physical fitness of Polish youth. Studia i Monografie 98. Warsaw: AWF Warszawa. [in Polish] 3. Przewęda R. (2009). Changes in the physical condition of Polish youth in recent decades. Studia Ecologiae et Bioethicae 7(1), 57-71. [in Polish] 4. Dobosz J. (2012). Physical condition of children and young


The goal of this research was to provide insight into and systematisation of data relevant for the emergence and development of gymnastics in the Principality, and later Kingdom of Serbia, based on a review of monographic and serially published sources. The basic hypothesis was founded on the expectation that a direct link would be established between gymnastics, as the pivot of the programme, as well as its forms of physical exercise, and the emergence and development of organised physical exercising system in the civilian gymnastic and Sokol associations. In this research the historical method was applied. The results presented in this paper showed that gymnastics was the first and the chief component of the military and school physical exercising programs, as well as the significant role of gymnastics in the development of civilian gymnastic, Army and Sokol associations, and in the popularisation and development of modern sports at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century in Serbia. The development of gymnastics was accompanied by the provision of suitable exercising conditions, the organisation of professional courses for the gymnastics teachers and the publishing of appropriate literature.

Introduction As in other gymnastics disciplines or sports such as synchronized swimming or figure skating, the determination of sporting performance in artistic gymnastics relies on the judge’s estimation concerning the movement quality of the presented skills ( Plessner and Haar, 2006 ). Therefore, perceiving and evaluating skills play a crucial role for judges, coaches, and the athletes themselves. While judges allocate points in a competition to identify the best athlete, coaches and athletes try to find sources of error to improve the movement. For both sides

Introduction It is well established that the manifestation of strength, power, flexibility, and muscular endurance is quite different from an apparatus to another in men’s artistic gymnastics ( Jemni et al., 2000 , 2001 , 2006 ). In this context, Grossfeld (2014) , Papadopoulos et al. (2014) as well as Dallas and Kirialanis (2010) confirmed that some gymnastic apparatuses were more or less taxing than others. The highest cardiorespiratory stress associated with larger anaerobic contributions was noticed during the floor exercises routines (maximum duration

References Chimot, C., Louveau, C. (2010). Becoming a man while playing a female sport: the construction of masculine identity in boys doing rhythmic gymnastics. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 45(4), 436-456. Davisse, A., Louveau, C. (1998). Sports, école, société: la différence des sexses. Féminin, masculin et activités sportives /Sport, school, society: the gender difference. Female and mal sport activities/. Paris: L’Harmattan. Guttmann, A. (1991). Women’s Sports: A History . New York: Columbia University Press. Hadas, M. (2003). The

Introduction A unique aspect of gymnastics is the need for the upper extremities to support gymnast’s full body weight (DiFiori et al., 2006) . During skills and routines, gymnasts land repetitively on the hands whilst tumbling on the floor and performing vaulting (Daly et al., 1999) . The consequence of upper limbs being weight-bearing causes high impact loads to be distributed through the wrist and elbow (Webb and Rettig, 2008) ; these repetitive loads can lead to both acute and chronic injuries (Davidson et al., 2005) . There is previous evidence that a