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. Poult. Sci., 51: 658-666. Chen Y., Cheng Y., Li X., Yang W., Wen C., Zhuang S., Zhou Y.M. (2017). Effects of threonine supplementation on the growth performance, immunity, oxidative status, intestinal integrity, and barrier function of broilers at the early age. Poultry Sci., 96: 405-413. Choct M. (2009). Managing gut health through nutrition. Br. Poult. Sci., 50: 9-15. Ciftci I., Ceylan N. (2004). Effects of dietary threonine and crude protein on growth performance, carcase and meat composition of broiler chickens. Br. Poultry Sci., 45: 280-289. Corzo A., Kidd M

Abstract

The effects of natural clinoptilolite (NCLI) and modified clinoptilolite (MCLI) were evaluated in broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a 21-d feeding trial. A total of 288 one-day-old chickens were allocated into three treatment groups: control, NCLI (2%) and MCLI (2%). Half of the birds from each treatment group were challenged with either 0.9% NaCl solution or LPS (250 μg/kg body weight, orally administered) at 16, 18 and 21 d of age. Before the LPS challenge, no dietary effect on bird growth performance was found (P>0.05). When LPS was orally administered, no significant changes in growth performance of broilers was found (P>0.05). However, small intestinal morphology and development, malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the jejunual and ileal mucosa, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of the ileal mucosa were significantly affected (P<0.05). Supplementation with NCLI and MCLI significantly decreased the MDA contents of the jejunual and ileal mucosa and improved the SOD activity of the ileal mucosa and the development of the small intestine compared with the control group (P<0.05). The results indicated that NCLI and MCLI additions in feed had protective effects on the gut health of broilers against LPS challenge.

growth and internal organ weights of broilers from young and old breeder flocks.S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci.36:135-141. Chiva - Blanch G., Visioli F., 2012. Polyphenols and health: Moving beyond antioxidants.J. Berry Res., 2: 63-71. Collins S.M., Surette M., Bercik P., 2012. The interplay between the intestinal microbiota and the brain. Nature Rev. Microbiol., 10, 735-742. Criste R.D., Panaite T.D., Tabuc C., Sărăcilă M., Șoica C., Olteanu M., 2017. Effect of oregano and rosehip supplements on broiler (14-35 days) performance, carcass and internal organs development and gut

expression of cytokine and tight junction proteins, and activates mitogen-activated protein kinases in pigs. J. Anim. Sci., 91: 1094-1101. Jeaurond E.A., Rademacher M., Pluske J.R., Zhu C.H.,de Lange C.F.M. (2008). Impact of feeding fermentable proteins and carbohydrates on growth performance, gut health and gastrointestinal function of newly weaned pigs. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 88: 271-281. Jha R., Rossnagel B., Pieper R., Van Kessel A., Leterme P. (2010). Barley and oat cultivars with diverse carbohydrate composition alter ileal and total tract nutrient digestibility and

References Aengwanich W., Suttajit M. (2010). Effect of polyphenols extracted from Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed coat on physiological changes, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, oxidative stress and body weight of broilers (Gallus domesticus) under chronic heat stress. Anim. Sci. J., 81: 264-270. Akbarian A., Golian A., Kermanshahi H., Farhoosh R., Raji A.R., De Smet S., Michiels J. (2013). Growth performance and gut health parameters of finishing broilers supplemented with plant extracts and exposed to daily increased temperature. Span. J. Agric. Res., 11

Abstract

Due to the threat and emergence of bacterial resistance against antibiotics, the use of in-feed antibiotics at therapeutic and subtherapeutic levels has been limited. Complete withdrawal of antibiotics as growth promoters (AGP) has led to poor gut health signs in chickens that include conditions like wet litter, intestinal bacteria overgrowth, poor growth performance, malabsorption and various diseases. Two of the most common alternatives to AGP are prebiotics and probiotics. Both prebiotics and probiotics have become the potential feed additives that improve the gut health, immune system and microbiota by various mechanisms of action, and enhance growth performance of chickens. The review discusses the modes of action like antibacterial, competitive exclusion (CE), and immunomodulatory properties of prebiotics and probiotics, particularly in poultry. In ovo feeding of prebiotics and probiotics with promising effect on growth performance and reduction of pathogens like Salmonella is also discussed in this review. However, it is necessary to conduct more research with prebiotics and probiotics as well as other feed additives to understand the detailed mechanisms of action and identify better alternatives for poultry production and health.

Abstract

Lipids (fats and oils) are concentrated source of energy in poultry diets that improves palatability, feed consistency, provides essential fatty acids and increases the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Fresh oil is an expensive energy source and its exposure to air, heat, metallic catalyst during storage and processing may lead to its oxidative deterioration. This review highlights the response of modern poultry to dietary oxidized oil on growth performance, nutrients digestibility, gut health, carcass characteristics, meat quality, blood chemistry and tissue oxidative status. Literature shows that in moderately (peroxide value (PV): 20 to 50 meq kg−1) and highly (PV: 50 to 100 meq kg−1 or above) oxidized oils, lipid peroxidation causes rancid odours and flavours that negatively affect feed palatability, reduces intestinal villus height that decreases the surface area available for nutrients absorption. The oxidation products also damage fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) in blood resulting in an oxidative stress. The use of oxidized oil in poultry diets has no significant effect on dressing percentage, pH and meat colour, whereas carcass weight decreases and drip loss of meat increases. Overall, there is a contradictory data regarding the influence of oxidized oil in poultry feed depending on the PV and inclusion levels. The reviewed literature shows that the use of mildly oxidized (PV < 20 meq kg−1) oil in poultry feed with 4 to 5% inclusion level decreases the feed cost and ultimately cost of poultry production without compromising their growth performance. It can, therefore, partially replace fresh oil as an efficient, cost effective and sustainable energy source in poultry diets.

Abstract

The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of essential oils of oregano, laurel and their combination on growth performance, intestinal microbiota and intestinal morphology as replacers of antibiotic growth promoters, as well as on the antioxidant capacity and mineral content of breast and thigh meat. A total of 256 day-old broiler chickens were randomized into 4 groups with 4 replicates. Control group received a basal corn-soybean diet, whereas the other experimental groups received the basal diet plus 25 mg/kg oregano essential oil, 2.5 mg/kg laurel essential oil or their combination, respectively. Chickens had free access to water and feed. Body weight gain and feed to gain ratio was calculated for the total fattening period and mortality was daily recorded. Intestinal microbiota was enumerated by conventional techniques with selective agar media at the end of the trial at both ileum and caecum. Also, evaluation of intestinal morphology was carried out in small intestine and caecum. At the end of the trial, birds were slaughtered, their carcasses were processed and samples of breast and thigh meat were analyzed for moisture, fat and protein content. Total phenolic content was determined in feeds and breast and thigh meat in order to assess its antioxidant capacity. Mineral content of breast and thigh meat was evaluated by ICP-MS. The results of the trial showed that the group that received oregano or the mixture of oregano and laurel presented better BW and FCR and mortality compared to control group. Bacterial counts for the Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were higher in the experimental groups compared to the control group at both ileum and caecum, and total coliforms were lower in caecum in the experimental groups compared to control. Higher values for villus height were found for the oregano supplemented groups compared to control or laurel ones. Oregano supplemented groups showed higher antioxidant capacity of breast and thigh meat compared to control and laurel groups, however no changes in mineral content were noted among the different groups. In conclusion, oregano essential oil alone or as a mixture with laurel essential oil can be used to improve growth performance and gut health in broiler chickens.

. Food Chem Toxicol   42 : 1749-1756. Křížková J, Burdová K, Hudeček J, Stiborová M and Hodek P. (2008). Induction of cytochromes P450 in small intestine by chemopreventive compounds. Neuro Endocrinol Lett   29 : 717-721. Morris ME and Zhang S. (2006). Flavonoid-drug interactions: effects of flavonoids on ABC transporters. Life Sci   78 : 2116-2130. Parkar SG, Stevenson DE and Skinner MA. (2008). The potential influence of fruit polyphenols on colonic microflora and human gut health. Int J Food Microbiol   124 : 295-298. Ryu SD and Chung WG. (2003). Induction of the

in poultry: review on diagnosis, control, prevention and interaction with overall gut health [w] 16th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, World’s Poultry Science Association, 253-261. DE VOS P., GARRITY G., JONES D., KRIEG N.R., LUDWIG W., RAINEY F.A., SCHLEIFER K-M, WHITMAN W.B., 2009. Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. Second Edition. Vol 3. The Firmicutes. Wyd. Springer, New York ISBN 0-387-95041-9. ELMUSHARAF M. A., BEYNEN A. C., 2007. Coccidiosis in poultry with emphasis on alternative anticoccidial treatments, Annals of the World Association on