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The mapping method was employed to study avian community structure in relation to rainfall in a town suburb in Highveld grassland in southern Africa. Studies were conducted in two breeding seasons: 1998, with dry spring; and 2001, with close to average spring rainfall. The total rainfall in 1998 was 1254 mm, while in 2001 it was 1445 mm, in both years much above the long-term annual average (866 mm). The avian community remained remarkably similar in both years, both in respect to the number of species (44 in 1998 and 53 in 2001), and dominance relationships. The Simpson’s Diversity Index was high and also very similar in 1998 and 2001 (D = 0.91; 0.93 respectively). In all years, dominant species included the Laughing Dove, Grey-headed Sparrow, Speckled Dove, Cape Turtle-Dove and Common Fiscal. The Southern Red Bishop in 2001 was also in the group of dominants. Significant differences were noted in the overall density of all birds, but contrary to expectation density was higher in 1998, with lower rainfall, than in 2001, with higher rainfall. The proportions of nesting and feeding guilds were similar in both years compared, except for the granivores, which were proportionally more common in 1998 than in 2001. This difference was mainly due to the Laughing Dove and Grey-headed Sparrow. Generally, it appears that the suburban avian community is more stable and more diverse than neighbouring communities in the natural habitats.
Various data (biological, chemical, hydrological and morphological) have been gathered within the frame of the monitoring of the Water Framework Directive from 2007 in Hungary. This data only used a status assessment of certain water bodies in Hungary. The macroinvertebrates indicate many environmental factors well; therefore, they are very useful in detecting changes in the status of an environment. The main aim in this research was to investigate changes in environmental variables and decide how these variables cause big changes in the macroinvertebrate fauna. The macroinvertebrate data was processed using the ASTERICS 4.0.4 program. The program calculated some important metrics (i.e., microhabitat distributions, longitudinal zonation, functional feeding guilds, etc.). These metrics were compared with the chemical and hydrological data. The main conclusion is that if we have enough of a frequency and quality of macroinvertebrate data, we can understand changes in the environment of an ecosystem.
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Nematode communities in the soils of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) rhizosphere grown alone and grown in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) orchard were investigated for three years in Hetian arid area, Xingjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwest of China. The results showed that eu-dominant families were Rhabditidae, Cephalobidae and Aphelenchidae among 15 families and 19 genera. Nematode abundance in wheat rhizosphere soil was smaller in wheat/jujube intercropping system, mainly because of lower numbers of bacterial feeders and fungal feeders. Besides, the nematode numbers of cp-1 and cp-2 (cp, colonizer-persister) guilds were significantly lower in wheat/jujube intercropping system than that in monoculture wheat system, due to the markedly lower numbers of Rhabditidae and Cephalobidae, although those of cp-3 and cp-4 guilds had no significant differences between monoculture and intercropping systems. Shannon-Weaver index (H’), genus dominance index (Ig) and structural index (SI), represented soil food web diversity and structure, had no differences between monoculture and intercropping systems. Significantly lower values of Wasilewska index (WI) and PPI/MI in monoculture wheat than in intercropping system. It was concluded that the soil status in monoculture wheat system exhibited better soil ecosystem in compared with wheat/ jujube intercropping system.
The Bologna archives preserve the bye-laws of 24 „armed societies”, dating from between 1230 and the early 1300s, written in good notary Latin. Though known to exist in other Italian city-states, only few non-Bolognese armed society bye-laws are preserved. These armed societies had disappeared everywhere by the Late Middle Ages.
This article explores the function of these armed societies and the feudal law aspects of the bye-laws - was their function predominantly military, social or political? Why did they suddenly appear, and just as suddenly disappear? How did they fit into Bologna’s constitution - how did they relate to the civic authorities, the guilds?
How did these armed societies operate? Who were the members? What arms did they have? Did they participate in the warfare between the city-states, the battles of the Lombard League and the Holy Roman Empire, the struggles between the Emperor and the Pope, the feuds between the Ghibellines and the Guelphs?