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): Agriculture in 2017, Warsaw: 1-204. Available at:,4,14.html (accessed 15.02.2019) Hanson A.D., Nelsen C.E. (1980): Water: adaptation of crops to drought-prone environments. In P.S. Carlson ed. The Biology of Crop Productivity. Academic Press, New York: 77–152. Yu H., Zhang Q., Sun P., Song C. (2018): Impact of Droughts on Winter Wheat Yield in Different Growth Stages during 2001–2016 in Eastern China. International Journal of Disaster Risk Science 9(3), 376–391. Jadczyszyn J., Niedźwiecki J


The shortage of water resources influences the future sustainability of sticky Maize (Zea mays L.) production. Deficit irrigation (DI) - a water management strategy - has gained much attention from scientists because of enhanced water use efficiency (WUE). Nonetheless, in reality, when applying this technique, its impact on yield and economic returns should be considered. Through an analytical literature review, this study examined the effect of growth stage DI on Maize production factors, i.e. yield, WUE, and economic returns. The results revealed that Maize’s WUE could be improved with the lowest reduction in yield as water stress was imposed during the vegetative or maturation growth stages. Therefore, the profitable returns could be reached even if the yield was reduced; however, the economic return was sensitive to commodity prices. The present review addressed that the Maize flexible capacities under growth stage water stress presented an opportunity for the optimization of irrigated water and profit preservation by accurately judging the managing time of irrigation implementation.


Accurate quantification of irrigation water requirement at different physiological growth stages of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) life cycle is important to prevent over or under irrigation. Field experiments were therefore initiated to model okra irrigation water requirements at the four physiological growth stages of okra life cycle using CROPWAT model. Derived savannah 1 (DS1), derived savannah 2 (DS2) and humid forest (HF) occupying 493.36 ha, 69.83 ha and 305.25 ha respectively were used. Some selected soil physical properties coupled with weather parameters were used to develop irrigation water requirements for okra crop. In DS1, the estimated crop co-efficient (Kc) values were 0.30, 0.52, 0.84 and 0.70 for the germination, crop growth, flowering and fruiting stages, respectively. Corresponding Kc values in DS2 were 0.30, 0.54, 0.90 and 0.84 and in the HF were 0.30, 0.56, 0.87 and 0.86 respectively. Daily crop evapo-transpiration values ranged from 1.16 to 3.36, 1.17 to 3.64, and 1.2 to 3.38 mm day-1 for DS1, DS2 and HF respectively with significant (p = 0.05) peak at the flowering stage for the three locations. Sustainable okra cultivation would require maximum daily irrigation water at flowering stage (reproductive phase) to meet the crop physiological needs and evapo-transpiration demand of the atmosphere.

Scientific Research 13: 998-1009. Akram M., 2011 - Growth and yield components of wheat under water stress of different growth stages. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research 36: 455-468. Ali M.A., 2011 - Pedigree selection for grain yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress conditions. Asian Journal of Crop Science 3: 158-168. Almeselmani M., Abdullah F., Hareri F., Naesan M., Ammar M.A., Kanbar O.Z., Saud A., 2011a - Effect of drought on different physiological characters and yield component in different Syrian durum wheat varieties. J. Agr

the ‘Uzun’ pistachio cultivar are shown in Table 6 . The CK concentrations in the panicles at different growth stages were significant at p < 0.05. The main CKs, expressed as a percentage of the total CK content, are shown in Figure 6 . In total, seven CKs were detected in the panicles ( Table 6 ). Among the CKs, iPR (58.36–105.31 ng · g −1 DW in ‘On’ year), contributing over 80% of the total CK content, and t -ZOG (6.53–29.22 in ‘On’ year) were dominant and showed the highest values; DHZR (1.10 ng · g −1 ) and c -ZOG (2.38–2.76 ng · g −1 in ‘On’ year) were

( Cuminum cyminum ). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Research, 1(1):53-60. Nakhzari Moghaddam A., 2010 - The effect of water stress and plant density on yield and yield components of cumin ( Cuminum cyminum ). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 40: 63-71 (in persian). Reggiani R., Bozo S., Bertani A., 1995 - The effect of salinity on early seedling growth of seeds of three wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Can. J. Plant Sci., 75: 175-177. Ranjbar G.H., 2010 - Salt Sensitivity of two wheat cultivars at different growth stages. World Applied Sciences Journal

, soil was fertilized with 75, 50, and 50 kg·ha −1 of N, P and K, respectively. A month after transplanting, 175 kg·ha −1 of N (as ammonium nitrate) was added ( Nangare et al. 2016 ). Table 1 Soil characteristics in 2012 at three different depths Depth (m) pH Granulometry (%) clay silt sand 0.00–0.25 8.4 10.2 16.7 73.1 0.25–0.50 8.7 09.1 18.9 72,0 0.50–0.75 8.9 11.7 22.8 65.5 Tomato seeds were sown on August 15, 2012 and August 6, 2013 in pots in the greenhouse. The plants were transplanted on September 23 after completing the initial growth stage (28 days), when

REFERENCES Amanullah, K.M. Kakar, A. Khan, I. Khan, Z. Shah, Z. Hussain, 2014 - Growth and yield response of maize ( Zea mays L.) to foliar NPK-fertilizers under moisture stress condition. Soil & Environment. 33(2): 116-123. Amanullah, A.Z. Khan, F. Khan, 2013 - Foliar application of nitrogen at different growth stages influence the phenology, growth and yield of maize ( Zea mays L.). Soil & Environment. 32(2): 135-140. Amanullah, M. Yasir, S.K. Khalil, M.T. Jan, A.Z. Khan, 2010 - Phenology, growth, and grain yield of maize as influenced by foliar applied

concentration of winter wheat at different growth stages. In Precision Agriculture , vol. 11 , no. 4, pp. 335‒357. DOI: 10.1007/s11119-010-9165-6. LIANG, H. ‒ HUANG, W. ‒ LIU, L. ‒ WANG, J. ‒ ZHAO, C. ‒ MA, Y. 2004. Variable rate nitrogen application algorithm based on SPAD measurements and its influence on winter wheat. In Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium , 2004. IGARSS ‘04: Proceedings. 2004 IEEE International, vol. 6 , pp. 4059‒4062. DOI:10.1109/IGARSS.2004.1370022 LICHTFOUSE, E. ‒HAMELIN, M. ‒NAVARRETE, M. ‒DEBAEKE, P. 2011. Sustainable agriculture. Volume 2

REFERENCES A bedinpour M. 2015. Evaluation of growth-stage-specific crop coefficients of maize using weighing lysimeter. Soil and Water Research. Vol. 10. Iss. 2 p. 99–104. A llen R.G., P ereira L.S., R aes D. 2006. Evapotranspiration del cultivo: Guias para la determinación de los requerimientos de agua de los cultivos. Estudio FAO Riego e Drenaje Paper. No. 56. ISSN 0254-5293 pp. 298. A llen R.G., P ereira L.S., R aes D., S mith M. 1998. Crop evapotranspiration: Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 56