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This paper presents the results of an analysis on characteristics of birch crowns (Betula pendula Roth) in relation to measures of the growth space occupied by a single tree at a young age. It also presents the relationships between the seedling height and certain crown characteristics. The study focused on four-year-old common birches growing in four different areas in the Elk Forest District in either fresh mixed coniferous or broadleaved forest. The measurements conducted on the chosen trees were used to calculate their crown characteristics such as crown diameter, length, height to the crown base, relative length and spread. They were also used to determine the growth characteristics of a single tree’s growth space, such as the crown area projected onto the ground, single tree space and the percentage use of unit area. Furthermore, fresh and dry leaf mass was determined. The birches growing in the fresh mixed coniferous forest reached an average height of 1.30 m, whereas in the fresh mixed broadleaved forest, the height of the trees was lower and amounted to 0.67 m. 95% of the trees had crown diameters of 0.57 m to 0.74 m in the fresh mixed coniferous forest, but only 0.19 m to 0.25 m in the fresh mixed broadleaved forest. The average lengths of the crowns in the fresh mixed coniferous and broadleaved forests amounted to 0.97 m and 0.37 m respectively. The author shows that there is a statistically significant correlation between the seedling height and the other examined characteristics. The best correlation was found between the height and the length of the crown (r = 0.9858) for birches growing in the fresh mixed coniferous forest and between the height and single tree space (r = 0.8468) for birches growing in the fresh mixed broadleaved forest.


The study presents the results of an analysis of the pine tree growth increments (height increment, dbh increment, basal area increment and volume increment) for a 5-year period. The study involved Scots pine trees of Kraft’s class 1, 2 and 3 (dominant stand) in stands of different age classes (II, III, V) growing in fresh mixed coniferous (BMśw) and fresh coniferous (Bśw) forest habitats. The multivariate analysis of variance was performed to assess the statistical significance of age and dominance of trees within a stand on their increment. The dominance position was classified for each tree using Kraft’s criteria. The following characteristic were also measured: dbh of the trunk in two directions (N-S and W-E), and crown projection area on the basis of the characteristic tree crown points, projected using of a crown projector, characteristic points in tree crowns (7 to 14 on average). The actual height was determined after trees were felled. The following measurements of the single tree growing space were selected and determined: crown projection area - pk (m2), crown diameter - dk (m), Seebach’s growth space number - dk / d1.3, crown projection area to basal area ratio d 2 k / d 2 1.3, crown deflection coefficient dk / h, single tree space ppd = pk·h (m3). We assessed the strength of the relationships between tree growth parameters and tree growth space, crown length, relative crown length and slenderness. Both the age and dominance position of trees within the stand affected the growth increments. The strongest correlation among measured traits was between the 5-year volume increment and decreasing slenderness.


Impact of tending on dvelopment of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) pole timber stands was analysed using different variants of the free crown thinning, i.e. the original method developed in Slovakia at the end of 1950s. Four variants of this method were compared: (i) - the free crown thinning on the whole area, the method of promising trees, later the method of target trees at stand age of 58 years. (ii) - the free crown thinning on non-whole area, tending realised inside of growth space of target trees only, the method of target trees, salvage cutting on the whole area. (iii) - the free crown thinning on non-whole area, the method of promising trees (the method of target trees at stand age of 58 years) realised on circular plots with diameter 4 m and spacing 8 m (distance between centre of circular plots). (iv) - combined selective method, thinning from below and the free crown thinning by method of target trees was used by the first thinning, in next thinning only the free crown thinning on whole-area was used, method of target trees. The structure (diameter and height) of the stand, the quantitative production parameters had been observed for a period of 30 years. Small differences were found in diameter and height structure between the variant (iv) and other three ones. Comparison of quantitative production pointed out minimum differences in favour of the variant (iv) compared to the other ones. The same results were also obtained in the qualitative production, especially for selective quality (target trees).

incremental and ecological regeneration and stands tending (in Polish). Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Warsaw, Poland. Jing Z., Weiqing M., Ye Z. (2015): Fisher Linear Discriminant Method for Forest Fire Risk Points on Transmission Line. International Journal of Smart Home. 9(4): 25-34. Kaźmierczak K. (2009): Selected measures of the growth space of a single tree in maturing pine stand (in Polish). Sylwan 5: 298-303. Kaźmierczak K. (2010): Selected measures of the growth space of a single tree in a 50-year-old Scots pine

equations. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry , 24, 271−275. Jiang L., Liu R. 2011. Segmented taper equations with crown ratio and stand density for Dahurian Larch ( Larix gmelinii ) in Northeastern China. Journal of Forestry Research , 22 (3), 347−352. Kaźmierczak K. 2009. Wybrane miary przestrzeni wzrostu pojedynczego drzewa w bliskorębnym drzewostanie sosnowym. [Selected measures of the growth space of a single tree in maturing pine stand]. Sylwan , 5, 298–303 [in Polish]. Kaźmierczak K. 2010. Kształtowanie się wybranych cech przestrzeni wzrostu pojedynczego

. If we do not think, we will think of nothing. Wealth is not a zero-sum game. If wealth is all in the mind and the imagination and creativity of the mind is unlimited, then wealth is unlimited. A country that knows where it is going will not get far. A country willing to create an entrepreneurial environment of risk taking and investment in the unknown may experience unlimited growth. Space travel is one example where the world as it was once known was surpassed. The orderly line up of countries in the GDP vs. CDR chart is remarkable, and suggests global

-old Arabidopsis seedlings ( Ma et al., 2007 ; Crabbe et al., 2011 ; Grimm et al., 2011 ; Ferl et al., 2015 ). Previous plant samples have utilized lighted environments that allowed photosynthesis, carbon fixation, and increased plant mass. Here we focus on refining methods for performing proteomic analysis on Arabidopsis samples grown in the BRIC hardware, a dark environment with limited growth space. Specifically, planting density to obtain sufficient tissue, coordinated on-orbit germination in darkness, growth time, and preservation of sample protein content must all be