River bank filtration (RBF) is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland) during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements), analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.
This paper is a summary of results of environmental analysis conducted by PGI-NRI, AGH-UST within the monitoring of natural gas prospecting in unconventional deposits. All elements of natural environment were analyzed and on this basis the qualitative and quantitative impact of drilling and hydraulic fracturing of shales could be assessed. Special attention was drawn to the analysis of the physicochemical condition of post-reaction fluids, soil gas in the well pad area and drilling fluids. The results of analysis reveal that prospecting works do not create a significant environmental hazard. Some indices connected, e.g. with the noise climate lightly exceeded permissible values. Nonetheless, if extensive prospecting and production of shale gas are involved, the environmental studies need to be broadened to supplement this report.
Szczecińskiego, wyspy Uznam i zachodniej części wyspy Wolin [ Hydrogeological documentation of disposable groundwaterresources of balance area of Międzyodrze Region, Szczecin Lagoon, Uznam Island and western part of the Wolin Island ]. Proxima S.A., Wrocław. Gurwin, J. & Ruszkiewicz, P., 2009. Zastosowanie numerycznego modelu filtracji w ocenie wpływu robót inżynierskich na wody podziemne na przykładzie planowanego tunelu między wyspami Wolin i Uznam [Application of numerical flow model in the assessment of planned engineering works on groundwaters on the example of planned
References Burzyński, K., Kozerski, B. & Sadurski, A., 1999. Procesy ingresji i ascenzji wód na polskim wybrzeżu bałtyckim. [Ingression and ascension processes of salt waters along the Polish Baltic coast]. Biuletyn Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego 388, 35–48. Kordalski, Z., 2013. Analiza wpływu zmian klimatycznych na zasoby wód podziemnych w strefie brzegowej Morza Bałtyckiego [ Impact of climatic changes on groundwaterresources in the zone of Baltic coast ]. Raport projektu badawczego [Project report]. NAG, PIG-PIB, Warszawa. Kozerski, B. (Ed.), 2007
Introduction With the development of industry, agriculture and the improvement in people's living standards, the demand for water resources is expanding rapidly leading to excessive groundwater consumption with the potential of causing damages to environment. Groundwater numerical simulation is to predict, assess and manage these resources. China, India and Iran are ranked from first to third in excessive consumption of groundwaterresources in 2005. On annual bases Iran consumes an average of 5 billion m 3 water, which exceeds the available capacity of
Introduction In ensuring livelihood and sustainability across the world, groundwaterresources play a major and concrete role. Consumption of groundwater as a feasible source of drinking, domestic, industrial and agricultural needs has proven to be not only safer but also more economical than surface water, as it is commonly unpolluted and available. In recent years, investigation of groundwater sources has become a burning issue and a major concern as groundwater basins are being rapidly stressed due to population explosion, high level of urbanisation
The article presents the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the chemical and physical properties of surface water and groundwater in the area of the city of Inowrocław. It has been shown that the properties of the waters were most strongly affected by the specific geological structure (the city is located within the Zechstein salt dome) as well as the long-term influence of a salt mine and soda plant. The composition of most analysed samples was dominated by Ca2+, Na+ and Cl− ions. In places of heavy industrial activity, some water parameters were several time higher than permissible limit values according to Polish standards. It is concluded that, due to the threat to the city’s drinking groundwater resources and fertile soils, the surface water and groundwater in the area in question require permanent monitoring.
This article presents an analysis of cartographic materials of the 19th and 20th centuries in terms of changes in the surface water network of the Gardno-Łeba Lowland. The obtained results confirmed that the natural water network was slightly transformed in the first half of the 19th century and considerably increased in the 20th century as a result of agricultural drainage system, especially drainage of wetlands, and river regulations. As a consequence, a hydrographic system with a forced water circulation has developed, that is quite different from the natural. On the one hand, it has become the reason for reversing the proportion in which the groundwater resources have been depleted, along with an increase in the surface water network density, and on the other hand it has caused a change in land use.
Development of groundwater levels as a consequense of climate change
Climate change poses a significant threat to many wetland ecosystems. Wetlands exist in a transition zone between aquatic and terrestrial environments and can be affected by slight alterations in regional hydrology, which can influence climate change through air temperature changes, regional changes in a rainfall regime, surface run-off, snow, duration of the winter season, groundwater resources and evapotranspiration.
Climate change in wetland areas is most significantly reflected in water levels and adjacent groundwater levels, and it can significantly change the hydroecological proportions of wetland ecosystems and endanger rare wetland fauna and flora communities. The focus of this paper is the impact of climate change on the groundwater level in the Záhorie Protected Landscape area in the Zelienka national nature reservation. The impact of the climate change was solved through the meteorological characteristic changes adapted by the GISS98 and CCCM2000 climatic scenarios. The groundwater level was determined by the HYDRUS-ET model for the time frames 2010, 2030 and 2075 in 20-year time intervals and consequently compared to the reference period of 1971-1990.
When dealing with groundwater resources, a better knowledge of the hydrological processes governing flow in the unsaturated zone would improve the assessment of the natural aquifer recharge and its vulnerability to contamination. In North West Europe groundwater from unconfined chalk aquifers constitutes a major water resource, therefore the need for a good hydrological understanding of the chalk unsaturated zone is essential, as it is the main control for aquifer recharge. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In order to describe the flow rate that reaches the water table, the kinematic diffusion theory has been applied that treats the unsaturated water flow equation as a wave equation composed of diffusive and gravitational components. The kinematic diffusion model has proved to be a convenient method to study groundwater recharge processes in that it was able to provide a satisfactory fitting both for rising and falling periods of water table fluctuation. It has also proved to give an answer to the question whether unsaturated flow can be described using the theory of kinematic waves. The answer to the question depends principally on the status of soil moisture. For higher values of hydraulic Peclet number (increasing saturation), the pressure wave velocities dominate and the preferential flow paths is provided by the shallow fractures in the vadose zone. With decreasing values of hydraulic Peclet number (increasing water tension), rapid wave velocities are mostly due to the diffusion of the flow wave. Diffusive phenomena are provided by matrix and fracture-matrix interaction.
The use of a kinematic wave in this context constitutes a good simplified approach especially in cases when there is a lack of information concerning the hydraulic properties of the fractures/macropores close to saturation.