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With the rapid pace of agricultural development, industrialization and urbanization, the commonly observed geogenic contaminants in groundwater are fluoride and nitrate, whereas nitrate is the dominant anthropogenic contaminant in the south-eastern plains of Rajasthan, India. Samples obtained using a tube well and hand pump in November, 2012, demonstrate that Na-Cl is the dominant salt in the groundwater, and the total salinity of the water is between 211-1056 mg L-1. Moreover, the observed sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) values ranged between 0.87 to 26.22 meq L-1 and -12.5 to 30.5 meq L-1 respectively. The study further shows that 6% of the total samples contain high amounts of nitrate, and 49% contain fluoride. A water quality index (WQI) rating was carried out using nine parameters to quantify the overall groundwater quality status of the area.
Ammar S. Dawood, Mushtak T. Jabbar, Mudhar H. Gatea and Hayfaa J. Al-Tameemi
The present work evaluated the groundwater quality index (GWQI) depending on some physicochemical analyses of thirteen groundwater samples in the Zubair district in Basra Province, Iraq. The collected groundwater samples were subjected to an extensive physicochemical analysis to evaluate the characteristics of water for drinking purpose according to Iraqi standard. For calculating the (GWQI), twelve water quality parameters were considered; turbidity, pH, chloride, total dissolved solids, total hardness (TH), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium, sulphate, phosphate, calcium, nitrate, and magnesium. The analysis of the results reveals that all the samples surpassed the portability of drinking water limits. High values of the (GWQI) in the obtained groundwater samples could possibly be caused by the higher values of electrical conductivity, total hardness, chloride, total dissolved solids and sodium within the groundwater. The calculated GWQI values ranged from 73.36 to 595.92. The pollution index (PI) was calculated for the study area with values ranged from 2.97 to 8.26. Correlation coefficients amongst the chosen water parameters exhibited some strong relationships. Finally, the analysis shows that the groundwater in this particular area needs to be treated before its consumption, and in addition, it usually needs to avoid the hazard of contamination. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) indicate that the acquiring-data from groundwater samples are explained 90.5 % of the variance in the data with a four-component system that explains a large portion of the total variance of collected data.
Maria Popa, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel, Ioana Glevitzky, Mirel Glevitzky and Dorin Popa
Water is a social requirement and an important factor in the ecological balance. Water from wells is good for direct consumption if the soil is not contaminated. The quality of drinking water is regulated by Law no. 458/2002 (transposing the Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of drinking water). The aim of this paper was to assess the physicochemical qualities of groundwaters from Brestea village, commune Denta, Timis County. The water samples were taken in 2015 from 10 functional wells. For the source whose physical and chemical parameters have exceeded the limit values, the monthly monitoring of the water quality (microbiological and physico-chemical properties) has been performed for 2 years. At the same time, the pH of the soil near the water sources was also measured. The results highlighted a good connection between the microorganisms from water and the nitrite, nitrate and ammonium content of water. The information can be further used to identify and eliminate the specific pollutants, areas and pollution sources.
Adeyemi Olusola, Opeyemi Adeyeye and Olufemi Durowoju
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