In parallel with intensified development of the Polish part of Uznam Island, there is an increase in the demand for drinking water in this area. This island ranks among areas with low water resources, which at the present time are allocated. In order to create the prospect of increased groundwater resources, a concept has been developed that allows for the recovery of part of the freshwater from drainage systems which discharge into the waters of Szczecin Lagoon or the River Świna. The present article discusses the secondary use of water from drainage systems for supply of the Wydrzany resource area. The notion of using water from the White Bridge pumping station was considered the most promising. The catchment area of the polder is 880 ha, 280 ha of which are located on Polish territory. The White Bridge pumping station transfers water from the polder, which it leads to the Peat Channel which, in turn, drains water gravitationally into Szczecin Lagoon. Here, results of simulations aimed at the use of drainage water to improve upon groundwater resources in the “Wydrzany” intake are discussed. On the basis of these simulations of artificial water supply to the intake, an increase of available resources by up to 50 per cent may be expected.
This paper presents the application of the simulation-optimization approach to optimize groundwater intake for the water supply of Tarnów agglomeration (southern Poland). Tarnów agglomeration is supplied with water from extensively exploited surface and groundwater intakes located at the confluence of the rivers Dunajec and Biała. Groundwater intakes capture water from the Quaternary aquifer, which is recharged by rainfall and direct infiltration from the rivers and irrigation ditches. Hydrogeological conditions occurring within the area under consideration were mapped by using a single-layer numerical model in Processing Modflow software. After calibrating the simulation model, a simulation-optimization approach was developed with the aim of aiding the process of searching for the best scheme of exploitation of groundwater intake. The unit response matrix method was used to connect the simulation model with the optimization procedure. In the optimization task the objective functions concerning the total volume of groundwater intake discharge and infiltration amount from the River Dunajec or irrigation ditches were applied. Several constraints concerned both the maximum and minimum capacity of individual wells and the entire intake, as well as desirable or undesirable drawdown values in selected control points and control areas. Finally, twelve variants of optimization tasks, for different boundary conditions and different objective functions, were solved and optimal schemes of well discharge distribution within the intake were calculated. The results of optimization show that, depending on the intended objective and the constraints imposed, the best exploitation scenario under the given conditions may be found.
The article presents the results of research, conducted in central Poland, where agriculture is the dominant type of land use. This activity is considered as a common potential hazard to groundwater quality because of the use of nitrate fertilizers, especially for small groundwater intakes used for the purpose of rural water supply. For this kind of intake seven scenarios of groundwater quality hazard were elaborated based on the results of the hydrodynamic modelling research in this area including the following: calculation of volume and time of leakage through the aquitard formations to the main useful aquifer, verification of the indirect protection zone and definition of the size of the well capture zone. The scenarios considered the current groundwater quality hazard as well as changes in agricultural land use or changes in fertilizer doses needed to decrease groundwater hazard by nitrates in the intake.
The study area, situated near the city of Wrocław in southwest Poland, is part of the hydrogeological system of the Quaternary/Neogene MGB 319, inclusive of a buried valley of high water potential, named the Bogdaszowice structure. This structure is an alternative source of water supply for the Wrocław city area. Numerical modelling is the most effective tool in establishing a groundwater protection strategy for Major Groundwater Basins (MGBs) in complex aquifer systems. In the present study, the first step was to assess the hydrodynamic conditions of the Radakowice groundwater intake by analyses of head contours, pathlines, average flow times and capture zones of particular wells. Subsequently, these results were used in combination with other data and compiled as GIS layers. The spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity was based on the lithology of surface sediments. Other data sets such as the thickness of the unsaturated zone, average soil moisture and infiltration rate were taken either directly from the model or were calculated. Based on the input data obtained, vertical flow time calculations for every model cell were made. The final outcome is a map of the protection zone for the aquifer system of the MGB 319.
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