, Bratislava, 162 p. (In Slovak.) Špaček, J., 1987: Determination of filtration coefficient from total grain-size curves. Meliorace, 23, 1, 1-13. (In Czech.) Storey, R., Howard, K., Williams, D., 2003. Factors controlling riffle-scale hyporheic exchange flows and their seasonal changes in a gaining stream: a threedimensional groundwaterflowmodel. Water Resour. Res., 39, 2, DOI:10.1029/2002WR001367. Švasta, J., Malík, P., 2006. Spatial distribution of mean effective precipitation over Slovakia. Podzemná voda, 12, 1, 65-77. (In Slovak.) Velísková, Y., Dulovičová, R., 2008
In parallel with intensified development of the Polish part of Uznam Island, there is an increase in the demand for drinking water in this area. This island ranks among areas with low water resources, which at the present time are allocated. In order to create the prospect of increased groundwater resources, a concept has been developed that allows for the recovery of part of the freshwater from drainage systems which discharge into the waters of Szczecin Lagoon or the River Świna. The present article discusses the secondary use of water from drainage systems for supply of the Wydrzany resource area. The notion of using water from the White Bridge pumping station was considered the most promising. The catchment area of the polder is 880 ha, 280 ha of which are located on Polish territory. The White Bridge pumping station transfers water from the polder, which it leads to the Peat Channel which, in turn, drains water gravitationally into Szczecin Lagoon. Here, results of simulations aimed at the use of drainage water to improve upon groundwater resources in the “Wydrzany” intake are discussed. On the basis of these simulations of artificial water supply to the intake, an increase of available resources by up to 50 per cent may be expected.
The analytic element method (AEM) has been successfully used in practice worldwide for many years. This method provides the possibility of fast preliminary quantitative analysis of the hydrogeological systems or boundary conditions of the numerical models, as it is shown in the case study of groundwater source of the city of Vrbas. The AEM is also applicable for the initial analysis of a hydrogeological system, which is of particular importance in case of excess pollution that cannot be predicted where it could happen. One example of the application of the AEM is presented in this article. The analytical model is calibrated based on the measured data from several drilled monitoring wells, and this was the base for the numerical model of the contaminant transport. In this case, the AEM enabled the quick access to information on the hydrogeological system and effective response to excess pollution.
:] Różkowski, A. & Wilk, Z. (Eds): Warunki hydrogeologiczne złóż rud cynku i ołowiu regionu śląsko-krakowskiego [ Hydrogeological conditions of deposits of zinc and lead ores of the SielsianCracow region ]. Wyd. Geologiczne, Warszawa, 146–151. Zdechlik, R., 2017. Sources of information for preparing groundwaterflowmodel, on the example of Poland. [In:] 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Geo-Conference (SGEM 2017) . Conference Proceedings 17 , Hydrogeology, engineering geology and geotechnics . Curran Associates, Red Hook, 775–783.
An overview is presented of scale problems in groundwater flow, with emphasis on upscaling of hydraulic conductivity, being a brief summary of the conventional upscaling approach with some attention paid to recently emerged approaches. The focus is on essential aspects which may be an advantage in comparison to the occasionally extremely extensive summaries presented in the literature. In the present paper the concept of scale is introduced as an indispensable part of system analysis applied to hydrogeology. The concept is illustrated with a simple hydrogeological system for which definitions of four major ingredients of scale are presented: (i) spatial extent and geometry of hydrogeological system, (ii) spatial continuity and granularity of both natural and man-made objects within the system, (iii) duration of the system and (iv) continuity/granularity of natural and man-related variables of groundwater flow system. Scales used in hydrogeology are categorised into five classes: micro-scale – scale of pores, meso-scale – scale of laboratory sample, macro-scale – scale of typical blocks in numerical models of groundwater flow, local-scale – scale of an aquifer/aquitard and regional-scale – scale of series of aquifers and aquitards. Variables, parameters and groundwater flow equations for the three lowest scales, i.e., pore-scale, sample-scale and (numerical) block-scale, are discussed in detail, with the aim to justify physically deterministic procedures of upscaling from finer to coarser scales (stochastic issues of upscaling are not discussed here). Since the procedure of transition from sample-scale to block-scale is physically well based, it is a good candidate for upscaling block-scale models to local-scale models and likewise for upscaling local-scale models to regional-scale models. Also the latest results in downscaling from block-scale to sample scale are briefly referred to.
During the last nine years, the 133 main groundwater reservoirs in Poland (MGR) have been documented; these were published last year. Some of these are situated in the coastal zone of the southern Baltic Sea. MGR numbers 111 and 112 are in the Gdańsk area and are discussed in the present paper. The study area is situated on the border region of the moraine plateau of the Cashubian Lakeland, the western part of the Vistula River delta plain and the Bay of Gdańsk. The area of the main groundwater reservoir in no. 112 is developed in Quaternary strata and referred to as Żuławy Gdańskie; it comprises predominantly the city of Gdańsk and slightly exceeds 100 km2. There is also a Cretaceous aquifer, rich in groundwater resources, which is named MGR no. 111, beneath the Quaternary reservoir mentioned above. The area studied and modelled totalled 364 km2, on account of the hydraulic connection between these aquifers. Methods of hydrogeological research, groundwater flow simulations, resources calculation are outlined in the present paper.
During the construction of mathematical models for mapping hydrogeological conditions it is necessary to apply simplifications, both in the geological structure and in hydrogeological parameters used. The present note discusses problems surrounding the mapping of glaciotectonic disturbances that occur in the northern part of Wolin Island (northwest Poland). For this part of the island, a direct outflow of groundwater towards the Baltic Sea basin has been determined on the basis of geophysical survey results. An important feature in the hydrogeological conditions here is the isolation of groundwater from both the Baltic Sea and Szczecin Lagoon by clay with a Cretaceous xenolith. Such a geological structure explains the presence of perched water at considerable heights in zones close to the cliffs, without any significant hydraulic connection with surrounding reservoirs. Hydrogeological conditions of Wolin Island have been modelled using the Visual MODFLOW package v.4.2. In the vertical section, these conditions can be simplified to one aquifer (Pleistocene-Holocene), in which two aquifers can be distinguished. In a large part of the island, these remain in mutual hydraulic contact: layer I – upper, with an unconfined aquifer, and layer II – lower, with a confined aquifer, locally an unconfined one. The schematisation of hydrogeological conditions adopted here has allowed to reproduce present groundwater dynamics in the study area.
Assessments of the infiltration recharge of groundwater are performed using various methods and on different scales. Infiltration is dependent of climatic factors, aspects of water circulation, as well as on quasi-stationary and variable environmental features of a specific area, which are frequently difficult to determine on the basis of direct measurements or observations. The objective of the present study was to identify factors conditioning recharge of shallow groundwater in selected catchment areas of the Poznań Upland using the WetSpass simulation water balance model with spatially distributed parameters. Our analysis has indicated favourable and unfavourable conditions for recharge of groundwater in the annual period and in both half-year periods, which are the result of mutual relationships between the physical qualities of these catchment areas and their climatic and hydrological characteristics. The results obtained also confirmed the impact of surface runoff and actual evapotranspiration on the spatial distribution of effective infiltration. With soil types and groundwater depth distributions being similar in the catchment areas, changes in relationships between components of water balance are caused by differences in the type of land usage. Application of the WetSpass model has made it possible to arrive at a more accurate assessment of groundwater recharge. The results obtained may be used for erification of recharge areas and values of effective infiltration, set as a boundary condition in groundwater flow models.
podziemnych w obszarze zasilania ujęcia, w oparciu o badania modelowe metodą elementów skończonych [ Evaluation of groundwater flow conditions in the recharge area of the in-take, based on model tests using finite elements method ]. AGH, Kraków. Juśko, K., Motyka, J., d’Obyrn, K. & Adamczyk, Z., 2018. Construction of a numerical groundwaterflowmodel in areas of intense mine drainage, as exemplified by the Olkusz Zinc and Lead Ore Mining Area in southwest Poland. Geologos 24, 237–244. Kulma, R. & Zdechlik, R., 2009. Modelowanie procesów filtracji [ Groundwater
, Geografia regionalna Polski. Państwowe Wydawnictwa Naukowe, Warszawa. MCDONALD M.G., HARBAUGH A.W., 1988, A modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwaterflowmodel. USGS, Open-File Report 83-875, Washington. MESZCZYŃSKI J., SZYDEŁ Z., 1998, Mapa hydrogeologiczna Polski w skali 1:50 000, arkusz Kałuszyn (527). Państwowy Instytut Geologiczny, Warszawa. POPOWSKI S., 1998, Operat wodno-prawny na pobór wód podziemnych dla potrzeb wodociągu wiejskiego Czarnogłów, Gmina Dobre. Niepublikowane. Archiwum Urzędu Gminy Dobre, Siedlce. SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STATION IN