The paper presents mathematical relationships that allow us to forecast the newbuilding price of new bulk carriers, based on data concerning vessels built in 2005-2015. The presented approximations allow us to estimate the price based on a gross tonnage capacity and a main engine power The approximations were developed using linear regression and the theory of artificial neural networks. The presented relations have practical application for estimation of bulk carrier newbuilding price needed in preliminary parametric design of the ship. It follows from the above that the use of artificial neural networks to predict the price of a bulk carrier brings more accurate solutions than linear regression.
The paper presents regression formulas that allow us to estimate the final price of new container ships, based on TEU and deadweight capacity, service speed, length between perpendiculars and gross tonnage of container ships built from 2005 to 2015. The formulas were developed using the author’s own method based on curve fitting techniques and regression methods. The study shows that utilising the author’s method to predict the final price could offer greater accuracy solutions than any standard methods presented in literature. This method was implemented properly with ndCurveMaster curve fitting software which was developed by the author and was applied to develop regression equations presented in the article. The formulas presented in the article have practical application for estimation of container ship final price needed in transport studies or preliminary parametric container ship design. These equations refer to the most up to date vessels and offer the chance to advance ship design theory.
The Turkish Merchant Shipping Industry has recently witnessed an increasing awareness of the importance to minimize environmental pollution and fuel oil consumption. Together with certain non-governmental organizations and media concerns about environmental protection, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been strict on controlling undesirable effects on the environment and, consequently, forcing shipping companies to minimize their emissions. Besides, today’s highly advanced technology companies over the world have developed various innovative systems that can be utilized to minimize carbon emission, thus giving assurance to relevant investors that their investments are most likely to turn out well with a considerable financial gain in the short or long term. Despite all such favorable developments, in a general look, shipping companies seem reluctant in making use of technologies providing efficiency in energy consumption. This reluctance has eventually brought about the term “Energy Efficiency Gap”. This research conducts a questionnaire, created by Acciaro et al. , among the shipping companies in Turkey. 20 respondent companies, who represent 26 percent of the Turkish owned merchant marine fleet of over 1000 gross tonnage in terms of deadweight cargo capacity, participated in the research. The Pearson correlation analysis was used, and interpretations were made according to the obtained statistical values. The aim of the research was to identify reasons and points restraining the use of new technologies regarding energy efficiency, as well as to develop proposals for the innovators in this field about how to overcome this handicap concerning technical and managerial aspects of gaining energy efficiency.
general value added tax rate in Iceland is 25.5% but some product
categories and services are subject to a lower rate of 7%. In late 2013,
an amendment was made to the value added tax lowering the VAT
rate on disposable diapers from 25.5% to 7%.
5. Stamp duty
A new and revised legislation on stamp duty entered into force on 1
January 2014. According to the new legislation, a stamp duty is only
levied on documents relating to the transfer of ownership of property
and ships over 5 grosstonnage registered in the country. Few docu-
ments are, however, specifically