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Works Cited “About Medieval Manuscripts.” Paulus Swaen . Web. 28 Jan. 2018. Benjamin, Walter. “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction.” Ada . . Web. 19 Mar. 2018. Benjamin, Walter. William Blake: A Critical Edition of the Major Works . Ed. Michael Mason. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1988. “Book of Kells.” The University of Scranton. Web. 29 Jan. 2018. “Brief History of Illuminated Manuscripts.” Getty Museum . Web. 28 Jan. 2018. Campbell, Julia. “Picture This: Inside the Graphic Novel.” Literary Cavalcade (May 2004): 18-22. Carr, Stephen

, 2015, pp. 22-41. Celotti, Nadine. “The translator of comics as a semiotic investigator.” C omics in translation, edited by Frederico Zanettin, Manchester: St. Jerome, 2008, pp. 33-49. Eisner, Will. Comics and Sequential Art. Tamarac, Florida: Poorhouse Press, 1985. Gravett, Paul. Graphic novels: stories to change your life. London: Aurum, 2005. Harris, Ashley, Rae. Graphic novels . Minneapolis: ABDO, 2013. Jakobson, Roman. “On linguistics aspects of translation.” Theories of Translation. An anthology of essays from Dryden to Derrida, edited by John Biguenet

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Literature. Journal of American Culture 18(1): 35–40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1542-734X.1995.1801_35.x (Accessed on: 17 September 2017). Hirsch, Marianne. (2001). Surviving Images: Holocaust Photographs and the Work of Postmemory. The Yale Journal of Criticism 14(1): 5–37. DOI: 10.1353/yale.2001.0008 (Accessed on: 17 September 2017). Hirsch, Marianne. (2011). Mourning and Postmemory. In: Michael A. Chaney (ed.), Graphic Subjects. Critical Essays on Autobiography and Graphic Novels (Wisconsin Studies in Autobiography). Wisconsin–London: The University of Wisconsin Press, 17


Nationalism has become a contested construct because scholars doubt its ideological authenticity and global migratory consciousness, which promotes transcultural / transnational identity, and problematizes its raison d’être. Though Abouet and Oubrerie’s graphic novel could be read as a portrayal of the emerging urban center and its postmodern identities, this study rather investigates how Aya de Yopougon galvanizes juvenile nationalistic consciousness through age-long African communal identity. Using the postcolonial theory, the paper argues that the epistemology of nationalism, as a forerunner of nationhood, has been inherently encapsulated in African communal identity as manifested in the lives of middle-class dwellers of Yopougon, a suburb of Abidjan. It further deconstructs the symbolic Eurocentric paradigms of nationalism because nationalistic consciousness is located in the African definition of “family” and “community” revealed in the setting of Yopougon which contrasts with other spaces that bear the emblem of nationhood in the novel. Yopougon is not Anderson’s “imagined community”; its inhabitants reflect African communal identity that is located in gender complementarities and civic interdependence. The paper concludes that communalism could be an African brand of modern nationalism, used to develop the nationalistic and communalistic consciousness of the Ivorian youths who are faced with crude realities of a postcolonial society.

(November/December): 60-61. (10 Apr. 2015) Wolk, Douglas. 2007. Reading Comics: How Graphic Novels Work and What They Mean. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press.

References Eakin, John Paul. 2011. Reading comics: Art Spiegelman on CD-Rom. In Michael A. Chaney (ed.), Graphic subjects. Critical essays on autobiography and graphic novels, 13-16. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. Egan, Susanna and Gabriele Helms. 2005. Generations of the Holocaust in Canadian auto/biography. In Julie Rak (ed.), Auto/biography in Canada. Critical directions, 31-51. Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. Eisenstein, Bernice. 2006. I was a child of Holocaust survivors. New York: Riverhead Books. El Rafaie, Elisabeth. 2012

. Chaney, Michael A. 2011. Introduction. In Michael A Chaney (ed.), Graphic subjects. Critical essays on autobiography and graphic novels , 3–9. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Connors, Ginny Lowe. 2013. Review of Correspondences. New York Journal of Books . (3 Dec. 2013). (accessed 8 Sept. 2016). Drewniak, Dagmara. 2015. Addicted to the Holocaust – Bernice Eisenstein’s ways of coping with troublesome memories in I Was a Child of Holocaust Survivors. Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 50(2–3). 39

: Continuum, pp. 1-14. Kemp, Theresa. 2010. Women in the Age of Shakespeare. Santa Barbara, Denver, Oxford: Greenwood Press. Moncrief, Kathryn and McPherson, Kathryn. 2007. “Embodied and Enacted: Performances of Maternity in Early Modern England”. Performances of Maternity in Early Modern England. Kathryn Moncrief and Kathryn McPherson (Eds.). London and Burlington: Ashgate, pp. 1-13. O’English, Lorena; Matthews, J. Gregory; Blakesley Lindsay Elizabeth. 2006. “Graphic Novels in Academic Libraries: From Maus to Manga and Beyond”. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, Vol

”. Journal of Reading 22: 253-258 Tabachnick, Stephen E. 2009. Teaching the Graphic Novel. New York: The Modern Language Association of America Ujiie, Joanne and Krashen, D. 1996. “Comic Book Reading, Reading Enjoyment, and Pleasure Reading”. Available: [Accessed 2014, July 2]. Versaci, Rocco. 2007. This Book Contains Graphic Language: Comics as Literature Paperback. London: The Continuum International publishing group Wertham, Fredric. 1954. Seduction of the Innocent. New York City: Rinehart & Company Witty

Social Sciences, 8 (4), 39-46. Milani, F. (1992). Veils and Words: The Emerging Voices of Iraninan Women Writers . New York: Syracuse University Press. Sabin, R. (2001). Comics, Comix, and Graphic Novels: A History of Comic Art . London: Phaidon. Nyberg, A. (1998). Seal of Approval: The History of the Comics Code. Mississippi Jackson: University Press. Satrapi, M. (2008). Persepolis: The Story of Childhood and the Story of Return . London: Vintage Books. Sidonie, S and Watsobn, J. (2010). Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting life Narratives . London