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Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform and evaluate the accuracy of classification of grains of different cultivars of malting barley. The grains of eight cultivars: Blask, Bor do, Con chita, Kormoran, Mercada, Serwal, Signora, Victoriana, with three moisture content: 12, 14, 16% were examined. The selected parameters of the surface texture of grain mass obtained from images taken using the techniques of hyperspectral imaging were determined. The accuracy of grains discrimination carried out using different methods of selection and classification of data was compared. The pairwise comparison and comparison of three, four and eight cultivars of malting barley were carried out. The most accurate discrimination was determined in the case of the pairwise comparison. Victoriana cultivar was the most different from the others. The most similar texture of grain mass was found in the comparison of cultivars: Blask and Mercada. In the case of eight examined cultivars of malting barley, the most accurate discrimination (classification error – 55%) was obtained for images taken at the moisture content of 14% and at a wavelength of 750 nm, for the attributes selection performed with the use of probability of error and average correlation coefficient (POE+ACC) method and the discrimination carried out using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA).

Abstract

The study assesses the quality of malt from spring malting barley grown in the Podkarpackie Province, and delivered to the SAN Farmers' Cooperative in 2018. After the initial technological assessment in the laboratory of SAN, the grain was malted in the Department of Agricultural and Food Production Engineering at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Land Management and Environmental Protection of the University of Rzeszow. Moisture, protein content, runoff time, viscosity, pH, wort clarity, extract content and diastatic power were determined in the tested malt, as well as wort obtained from it in the process of mashing. The average parameters of protein content, extractivity of malt ground into flour, of pH and the wort extract were normative, while the other researched parameters did not meet high quality requirements. A high loss of grain mass was noted during malting. After laboratory tests of malt and wort, it was determined that part of the malting raw material is of high malting quality and can be used without modification in the brewhouse for the malting and mashing process.

Abstract

Intense collisional transport of bimodal sediment mixture in open-channel turbulent flow with water as carrying liquid is studied. The study focusses on steep inclined flows transporting solids of spherical shape and differing in either size or mass. A process of vertical sorting (segregation) of the two different solids fractions during the transport is analyzed and modelled. A segregation model is presented which is based on the kinetic theory of granular flows and builds on the Larcher-Jenkins segregation model for dry bimodal mixtures. Main modifications of the original model are the carrying medium (water instead of air) and a presence of a non-uniform distribution of sediment across the flow depth. Testing of the modified model reveals that the model is applicable to flow inclination slopes from 20 to 30 degrees approximately, making it appropriate for debris flow conditions. Changing the slope outside the specified range leads to numerical instability of the solution. A use of the bimodal mixture model is restricted to the grain size ratio 1.4 and no restriction is found for the grain mass ratio in a realistic range applicable to natural conditions. The model reveals trends in the vertical sorting under variable conditions showing that the sorting is more intense if flow is steeper and/or the difference in size or mass is bigger between the two sediment fractions in a bimodal mixture.

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