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® Ecoplates. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 47, 4: 256-263. FORLANI G., PAVAN M., GRAMEK M., KAFARSKI P., LIPOK J. 2008. Biochemical bases for a widespread tolerance of cyanobacteria to the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate. Plant Cell Physiol. 49: 443-456. GIESY J.P., DOBSON S., SOLOMON K.R. 2000. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup® herbicide. Rev. Environ. Contam Toxicol. 167: 35-120. KRZYŚKO-ŁUPICKA T., ORLIK A. 1997. The use of glyphost as the sole source of phosphorus or carbon for the selection of soil-borne fungal strains capable to degrade this herbicide. Chemosphere

Abstract

Rainfed wheat is generally grown in rotation with summer fallow in medium to high rainfall zone of Pothwar plateau of Pakistan. The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the impact of shallow and deep tillage practices, with and without herbicide (glyphosate) application, on moisture conservation and subsequent wheat yields. The study also aimed to examine the feasibility of substituting intensive shallow tillage with single application of glyphosate. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates and net plot size of 14 m x 10 m, during 2007 and 2008 at two locations i.e high and medium rainfall. Wheat cultivar “GA-2002” was planted as a test crop. The data showed the superiority of conservation tillage in terms of conservation of moisture and increasing grain yields. Results also elaborated that tillage cannot be completely eliminated for profitable fallow management. However, deep ploughing with moldboard followed by single application of glyphosate proved potential option for substituting shallow tillage carried out during summer (kharif). The additional benefits under this tillage system included saving in fuel, labour and lower depreciation and maintenance costs for tillage machinery in addition to unquantifiable environmental benefits.