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References 1. Antoniou M. et al. (2012) Teratogenic Effects of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides: Divergence of Regulatory Decisions from Scientific Evidence. J. Environ. Anal. Toxicol . p. S4:006. 2. Benbrook, C. M. (2016) Trends in glyphosate herbicide use in the United States and globally. Environmental Sciences Europe , 28, 3. 3. Conrad, A. et al. (2017) Glyphosate in German adults - Time trend (2001 to 2015) of human exposure to a widely used herbicide. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 220 (1) p. 8-16. 4. Cuhra, M et al. (2016) Glyphosate: Too Much of a Good Thing

R eferences Bates D. M., Watts D. G. (1988): Nonlinear Regression Analysis and Its Applications. New York: Wiley & Sons (pp. 103–104). Carroll R. J., Ruppert D. (1988): Transformation and Weighting in Regression. New York: Chapman and Hall (Chapter 4). Choudhary H., Pernak J., Shamshina J. L., Niemczak M., Giszter R., Chrzanowski Ł., Praczyk T., Marcinkowska K., Cojocaru O. A., Rogers R. D. (2017): Two Herbicides in a Single Compound: Double Salt Herbicidal Ionic Liquids Exemplified with Glyphosate. Dicamba. and MCPA. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering 5

References Bonnet J.L., Bonnemoy F., Dusser M., Bohatier J., 2007, Assessment of the potential toxicity of herbicides and their degradation products to non target cells using two microorganisms, the bacteria Vibriof ischeri and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis, Environ. Toxicol. 22(1): 78-91. Buhl K.J., Faerber N.L., 1989, Acute toxicity of selected herbicides and surfactants to larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18(4): 530-536. Contardo-Jara V., Klingelmann E., Wiegand C., 2009, Bioaccumulation of glyphosate and its

REFERENCES 1. Stephen, D. O., & Stephen, P. B. (2008). Glyphosate: A Once-in-a-Century herbicide. Society of Chemical Industry . doi:10.1002/ps.1518 2. Linglee, H., Wenchen, K., Hsienchi, C., Jonghuang, J., & Miintsai, L. (2000). Clinical Presentations and Prognostic Factors of a Glyphosate–Surfactant Herbicide Intoxication: A Review of 131 Cases. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7 (8), 906–910. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2000.tb02069.x 3. Roberts, D. M., Buckley, N. A., & Mohamed, F. (201). Acute Self-Poisoning with Glyphosate Herbicide: A Prospective Observational

References 1. Benachour N, Sé ralini GE: Glyphosate formulations induce apoptosis and necrosis in human umbilical, embryonic, and placental cells. Chem Res Toxicol 2009; 22(1):97-105. 2. Gasnier C, Dumont C, Benachour N, Clair E, Chagnon MC, Séralini GE: Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell line. Toxicol 2009; 262(3):184-191. 3. Eriksson M, Hardell L, Carlberg M, Åkerman M: Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis. Int J Canc 2008; 123:1657-1663. 4. Daruich D

Literature cited Balbuena, M.S., Tison, L., Hahn, M.L., Greggers, U., Menzel, R. and Farina, W.M. 2015. Effects of sublethal doses of glyphosate on honeybee navigation. Journal of Experimental Biology , 218: 2799-805. Benbrook, C.M. 2016. Trends in glyphosate herbicide use in the United States and globally. Environmental Sciences Europe , 28: 3. Botero-Coy, A.M., Ibanez, M., Sancho, J.V. and Hernandez, F. 2013. Direct liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of underivatized glyphosate in rice, maize and soybean. Journal of Chromatography A

References Agundez JA, Garcia-Martin E, Martinez C. (2009). Genetically based impairment in CYP2C8- and CYP2C9-dependent NSAID metabolism as a risk factor for gastrointestinal bleeding: Is a combination of pharmacogenomics and metabolomics required to improve personalized medicine? Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 5(6): 607-620. Ali A. and Fletcher R. A. (1977), Phytotoxic action of glyphosate and amitrole on corn seedlings. Can J Bot 56: 2196-2202. Allen RH, Stabler SP, Savage DG, and Lindenbaum J. Metabolic abnormalities in cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate defi

glyphosate-surfactant formulation. J . Toxicol. Clin. Toxicol . 42 (3): 317-319. Astiz M, de Alaniz MJT, Marra CA. (2009). Ef ect of pesticides on cell survival in liver and brain rat tissues. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 72: 2025-2032. Avellar de IG, Magalhães MM, Silva AB, Souza LL, Leitão AC, Hermes-Lima M. (2004). Reevaluating the role of 1,10-phenanthroline in oxidative reactions involving ferrous ions and DNA damage. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1675 (1-3): 46-53. Barcellos LJG, Kreutz LC, Rodrigues LB, Fioreze I, Quevedo RM, Cericato L, Conrad J, Soso AB, Fagundes M

® Ecoplates. Eur. J. Soil Biol. 47, 4: 256-263. FORLANI G., PAVAN M., GRAMEK M., KAFARSKI P., LIPOK J. 2008. Biochemical bases for a widespread tolerance of cyanobacteria to the phosphonate herbicide glyphosate. Plant Cell Physiol. 49: 443-456. GIESY J.P., DOBSON S., SOLOMON K.R. 2000. Ecotoxicological risk assessment for Roundup® herbicide. Rev. Environ. Contam Toxicol. 167: 35-120. KRZYŚKO-ŁUPICKA T., ORLIK A. 1997. The use of glyphost as the sole source of phosphorus or carbon for the selection of soil-borne fungal strains capable to degrade this herbicide. Chemosphere


Rainfed wheat is generally grown in rotation with summer fallow in medium to high rainfall zone of Pothwar plateau of Pakistan. The present study was, therefore, conducted to investigate the impact of shallow and deep tillage practices, with and without herbicide (glyphosate) application, on moisture conservation and subsequent wheat yields. The study also aimed to examine the feasibility of substituting intensive shallow tillage with single application of glyphosate. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replicates and net plot size of 14 m x 10 m, during 2007 and 2008 at two locations i.e high and medium rainfall. Wheat cultivar “GA-2002” was planted as a test crop. The data showed the superiority of conservation tillage in terms of conservation of moisture and increasing grain yields. Results also elaborated that tillage cannot be completely eliminated for profitable fallow management. However, deep ploughing with moldboard followed by single application of glyphosate proved potential option for substituting shallow tillage carried out during summer (kharif). The additional benefits under this tillage system included saving in fuel, labour and lower depreciation and maintenance costs for tillage machinery in addition to unquantifiable environmental benefits.