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Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

References 1. Bessen , H. A. Therapeutic and toxic effects of digitalis: William Withering, 1785. - J. Emerg. Med., 4, 1986, № 3, 243. 2. Bourgeois , B., P. Incagnoli, J. Hanna etV. Tirard. Traitement par anticorps antidigitalique d’une intoxication volontaire par laurier rose. - Annales Françaises d’Anesthésie et de Réanimation, 24, 2005, № 6, 640-642. 3. Camphausen , C., N. A. Haas et A. C. Mattke. Successful treatment of oleander intoxication (cardiac glycosides) with digoxin-specifi c Fab antibody fragments

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Application of in vitro stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) cultures in obtaining steviol glycoside rich material

. Ind. Crops Prod 2012; 37(1):111-117. 4. Kinghorn AD. Biologically active compounds from plants with reputed medicinal and sweetening properties. J Nat Prod 1987; 50(6):1009-1024. 5. Brusick DJ. A critical review of the genetic toxicity of steviol and steviol glycosides. Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(7):S83-S91. 6. Ibrahim IA, Nasr MI, Mohammed BR, El-Zefzafi MM. Nutrient factors affecting in vitro cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana. Sugar Tech 2008; 10(3):248-253. 7. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food

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Challenges relating to comparison of flavonoid glycosides dissolution profiles from Sutherlandia frutescens products

(2013) 488-497; DOI: 10.1124/dmd.112.049593. 4. X. Fu, X. C. Li, Y. H. Wang, B. Avula, T. J. Smillie, W. Mabusela, J. Syce, Q. Johnson, W. Folk and I. A. Khan, Flavonol glycosides from the South African medicinal plant Sutherlandia frutescens, Planta Med. 76 (2010) 178-181; DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1186030. 5. P. Jin, S. Madieh and L. L. Augsburgers, Challenges with dissolution testing and quality assessment for commercial feverfew products, Dissolut. Technol. (2007) 14-20; DOI: 10.14227/DT140307P14

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Isolation and free-radical-scavenging properties of cyanidin 3-O-glycosides from the fruits of Ribes biebersteinii Berl.

, N. Saito, K. Shinoda, A. Shigihara and T. Honda, Cyanidin glycosides in flowers of genus Corydalis ( Fumariaceae ), Biochem. Syst. Ecol.   33 (2005) 789-798; DOI: 10.1016/j.bse.2004.12.021. N. Saito, F. Tatsuzawa, A. Nishiyama, M. Yokoi, A. Shigihara and T. Honda, Acylated cyaniding 3-sambubioside-5-glucosides in Matthiola incana, Phytochem.   38 (1995) 1027-1032; DOI: 10.1016/0031-9422(94)00659-H. K. Takeda, D. Fischer and H. Grisebach, Anthocyanin composition of Sinapis alba, light induction of enzymes

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Evaluation of phytochemical components of various parts of Cola millenii K. Schum

Abstract

This study is aimed at evaluating the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical composition of various parts (leaf, stem bark, root, seed and pulp) of Cola millenii a medicinal plant of southwestern Nigeria. The bioactive ingredients were extracted using water, ethanol and n-hexane in a solvent-percolation protocol. The qualitative phytochemical screening result revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in all the parts of the plant analyzed. Glycosides was found in only the seed and pulp extracts while only the seed, leaf and stem bark contain terpenoids. Also, flavonoids were found in pulp extract only whereas, anthraquinones were not found in all the plant parts. In the quantitative analyses aqueous extracts of the pulp parts contained higher saponins (1.81%), tannins (0.77%) and flavonoids (1.12%) followed by seed aqueous extract which had 0.62%, 0.51%, 0.70% and 0.47% composition of alkaloids, saponins, glycosides and terpenoids respectively. In ethanol extract, pulp extract also had higher percentage of alkaloids (1.72%), saponins (2.24%), tannins (1.15%) and flavonoids (1.21%) compared to other parts of the plant however, glycosides was found in higher percentage in seed extracts (1.10 %) than in pulp (0.21%). Moreover, in n-hexane extracts of the plant parts, pulp extracts revealed higher percentage of alkaloids (1.71%), saponins (1.40%) and flavonoids (0.93%) followed by stem bark extract whereas glycosides was present in higher percentage in seed (0.82%) than pulp extracts (0.38%). In all, the pulp and seed extracts of the plant contained more phytochemicals than other parts screened. Moreover, pulp extracts contain higher percentage of these phytochemicals than the other parts except glycosides and terpenoids which were more abundant in seed extracts than the other parts. Among different solvents used for extraction in the series, ethanol had the highest extraction capacity in pulp, leaf and stem bark extracts while n-hexane had the best extraction capacity in the seed extract. Thus, C. millenii may possess medicinal properties which may be expeditiously utilized in the pharmaceutical industry.

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Synthesis of pyranopyrazolo N-glycoside and pyrazolopyranopyrimidine C-glycoside derivatives as promising antitumor and antimicrobial agents

Abstract

As a part of systematic investigation of the synthesis and biological activities of pyrazole analogues linked to various heterocyclic systems, a new series of pyrazolo-N-glycoside derivatives, pyrazolopyranopyrimidine and C-glycoside of pyrazolopyranotriazolo-pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized through the reaction of the key intermediate 6-amino-3-methyl-4-(substituted-phenyl)-1,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]pyrazole-5-carbonitrile (3a,b) with different reagents. Structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by elemental microanalysis and spectroscopic methods. The compounds were subjected to in vitro antitumor evaluation using the MTT assay. N-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)- and N-(β-D-xylofuranosyl)-6{[(1E)-4-chlorophenyl)-methylene] amino}4-(4-florophenyl)-3-methyl-1,4-dihydropyrano[2,3-c]-pyrazole-5-carbonitrile (6a,b) were the most active compounds against three human cancer cell lines. Also, most of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited high activity towards Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 6a exhibited excellent activity towards bacteria compared to ofloxacine as the reference drug.

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Assay of flavonoid aglycones from the species of genus Sideritis (Lamiaceae) from Macedonia with HPLC-UV DAD

. 2 , Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1991. F. A. T. Barberan, I. M. Nunez and F. Tomas, An HPLC study of flavones from some Spanish Sideritis species, Phytochemistry 24 (1985) 1285--1288. F. A. T. Barberan, M. I. Gil, F. Ferreres, D. Rivera, C. Obon and F. T. Lorente, Distribution of 8-hydroxyflavone glycosides and flavonoid aglycones in some Spanish Sideritis species, Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 21 (1993) 487--497. O. M. Palomino, P. Gomez-Serranillos, E. Carretero and A. Villar

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The effect of 2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin on the stability of polyphenolic compounds from Moringa oleifera Lam leaf extracts in a natural low-transition temperature mixture

determination of flavonoids with response surface methodology optimization. J. Chrom. A 1285: 22-30. Çelik SE, Özyürek M, Güçlü K, Apak R (2015) Antioxidant capacity of quercetin and its glycosides in the presence of β -cyclodextrins: influence of glycosylation on inclusion complexation. J. Inclus. Phenom. Macrocycl. Chem. 83: 309-319. Çelik SE, Özyürek M, Tufan AN, Güçlü K, Apak R (2011) Spectroscopic study and antioxidant properties of the inclusion complexes of rosmarinic acid with natural and derivative cyclodextrins. Spectrochim. Acta Part A: Mol. Biomol

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Haemostatic activity of butanolic extracts of Lamium album and Lamium purpureum aerial parts

REFERENCES 1. N. Ito, R. Kakuda, Y. Yaoita and M. Kikuchi, Five new phenylethanoid glycosides from the whole plants of Lamium purpureum L., Chem. Pharm. Bull . 54 (2006) 1705–1708; https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.54.1705 2 F. N. Yalçın and D. Kaya, Ethnobotany, pharmacology and phytochemistry of the genus Lamium (Lamiaceae ), FABAD J. Pharm. Sci . 31 (2006) 43–52. 3 Z. P. Yordanova, M. K. Zhiponova, E. T. Iakimova, M. A. Dimitrova and V. M. Kapchina-Toteva, Revealing the reviving secret of the white dead nettle (Lamium album L

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Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Some Species of the Genus Galium L. Galium Verum and Mollugo

:453-466. 5. Bojthe-Horvath K, Hetenyi F, Kocsis A et al. Iridoid glycosides from Galium verum. Phytochemistry. 1980; 21-2917-2919. 6. Bojthe-Horvath K, Kocsis A, Parkany L et al. A new iridoid glycoside from Galium verum L. First X-ray analysis of a tricyclic iridoid glycoside. Tetrahedron Lett. 1982; 23- 965-966. 7. Demirezer LO, Gurbuz F, Guvenalp Z et al. Iridoids, flavonoids and monoterpene glycosides from Galium verum subsp. verum. Turk J Chem. 2006; 30- 525-534. 8. Iavarone C, Sen A, Trogole C et al. Mollugoside, an

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