cardiovascular events and mortality among individuals with end-stage kidney disease [ 11 ]. Inversely, reports have shown that serum adiponectin increases in chronic kidney disease (CKD) [ 12 , 13 , 14 ], especially in individuals with end-stage kidney disease [ 15 ]. When the kidney is damaged or impaired, the glomerularfiltration rate (GFR) decreases, resulting in an accumulation of adiponectin in blood circulation [ 11 ].
CKD is a noncommunicable disease, which is the global epidemic with increasing prevalence [ 16 ]. CKD is defined as abnormalities of kidney structure
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Anderson Pontes Morales, Felipe Sampaio-Jorge, Luiz Felipe da Cruz Rangel, Jackson de Souza Menezes, Tiago Costa Leite and Beatriz Gonçalves Ribeiro
athletes by cardiopulmonary variables. Therefore, the use of this indicator in the soccer pre-season can assist conditioning coaches to individualize training and reduce athetes’ individual heterogeneity of cardiopulmonary conditioning.
The assessment of renal function is determined by measuring the glomerularfiltration rate (GFR), urinary protein, urinary protein excretion, or serum cystatin C ( Mingels et al., 2009 ). Creatinine clearance (Ccr) and other reference procedures, such as clearance of inulin, 125I-iothlamate, 51Cr-EDTA, or iohexol, are used to determine
dysfunction and hepato-renal failure in liver disease. Hepatology 1994;20:362-9.
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19. Sherman DS, Fish DN, Òeitelbaum I. Assessing renal function in cirrhotic patients: problems and pitfalls. Am J Kidney Dis 2003;41:269-78.
20. Stevens LA