measure, bridging the gap between qualitative and quantitative aspects. This article gives an overview of relevant literature on walkability with a focus on European approaches. Subsequently, we provide a new, multi-faceted definition of walkability and an approach for holistically assessing urban walkability through combining traditional geospatialanalysis of spatial data, subjective information gathered through questionnaires, and individual perceptions acquired by wearable biosensors. A small case study illustrates the approach. This new integrative method aims to
The dynamic development of technology benefits from an access to information about space, and thus this development has a significant impact on the urban form of cities. This applies not only to spatial behaviour of users but also to the principles of spatial policy. The purpose of this study is to systematise knowledge in the field of shaping the development of tall buildings in Poland in the light of available spatial data and their impact on the urban structure of cities. The method of aggregation of spatial data in the form of a point cloud from LiDAR laser scanning was validated; geospatial analysis and map studies in the GIS environment were conducted taking into account trends in building height distribution. The conclusions highlight the primary aim of the latest research methods that can be implemented in the context of urban analysis. The case study of Wrocław shows that the method for the aggregation of spatial data from laser scanning is a universal research tool in the search for trends occurring in the urban form of the city, in particular with relation to building height.
Intense marine reclamation activities bring obvious benefits, meanwhile, these activities also influence the coastal natural formation, hydrodynamic processes and water environment etc. In order to investigate the exact influence in the Qinzhou Bay brought by marine reclamation behaviors in recent years, based on the remote sensing image data in the Qinzhou Bay in 2006, 2008, 2009, 2012 and 2014, with the help of GIS and RS software, the thesis interprets Qinzhou Bay coastline and artificial reclamation by man-machine interaction and makes quantitative analysis in the Qinzhou Bay coast evolution recently. The results show: (1) Qinzhou Bay coastal morphology change degree was strong in 2006 - 2012 and the coastline changed greatly. Originally part of the natural shore segments which had twists and turns were gradually filled into artificial coast, the coast constantly advanced to the sea, coastline became regular and straight; (2) The change degree of coastline was relatively small in 2006-2008, the average artificial coastline increased 8.86 km/a, the average artificial reclamation area was 20.79 km2 /a; in 2008-2012, the change range of coastline was the greatest, coastline changed most severely, the average artificial coastline increased 16.07 km/a, the average artificial reclamation area was 58.52 km2 /a; however, in 2012-2014, coastline change degree relatively slowed, the average artificial coastline increased 4.04 km per year, the average artificial reclamation area was 3.464 km2 /a. (3) Compared to the studies of predecessors, the innovation of this paper is that it is the first to carry out the detailed research on coastline evolution caused by reclamation engineerings of the Qinzhou Bay, then formed the change results on coastline that caused by intense human activities in the Qinzhou Bay, provided the area of the marine environment protection with full and accurate data.
Illegal extraction of gold has grown to be a problem in many countries, causing the degradation of the environment. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate changes in tree cover and surface pollution. The development of a mine site has been observed and analysed with images acquired from Landsat and the Sentinel missions. The results of the study showed changes in the state of the environment, strongly suggesting the possibility of ongoing pyrite weathering processes and the transportation of clay materials down watercourses, which can cause not only the further deterioration of the environment but also slow down the natural regeneration of the forest. In addition, research has found disturbing changes in vegetation, showing a loss of tree cover in the Amazon Rainforest as high as 17%. The validity of using remote sensing methods to observe the development of individual mining sites and their characteristics was confirmed.
Vegetation cover over Nigeria has been on the decrease recently, hence the need for adequate monitoring using geo-information technology. This study examined the spatio-temporal variation of vegetation cover over Nigeria for thirty years with a view to developing a strategy for enhancing environmental sustainability. In order to predict the spatial extent of vegetation cover in 2030, the study utilised satellite images from between 1981 and 2010 using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) coupled with cellular automata and Markov chain techniques in ArcGIS 10.3. The results showed that dense vegetal areas decreased in area from 358,534.2 km2 in 1981 to 207,812 km2 in 2010, while non-vegetal areas increased from 312,640.8 km2 in 1981 to 474,436.4 km2 in 2010 with a predicted increase to 501,504.9 km2 by 2030, i.e. an increase of about 27,068.4 km2 between 2010 and 2030. The study concluded that geoinformation techniques are effective in monitoring long-term intra- and inter-annual variability of vegetation and also useful in developing sustainable strategies for combating ecological hazards.
The research was carried out in 6 territories located in oak forests of Slobozhanshchyna in 2007–2016. Family home ranges were determined using the average nearest neighbour distance between all setts of a sett system for the badgers and between breeding burrows for the foxes. The use of fox and badger family home ranges in different seasons and years was estimated by changes in the use of burrows at the monitoring site of Gomilshanski Lisy National Nature Park. In the oak forests, 173 burrows were studied, among which 75 are used by badgers and 45 by foxes. The area of most of the badger family home ranges in the oak forests is 28–88 hа. The area of the fox family home ranges in the oak forests is 86 to 892 ha. In the oak forests of Slobozhanshchyna, badger and fox family home ranges correspond to the data for similar biotopes in Europe. Seasonal changes of the badger family home range used at the monitoring site in Gomilshanski Lisy NNP in general correspond to literature radio tracking data. Changes in use of the fox family home range de pend on fluctuations of the abundance of rodents.
Climate change and its severity play an important role in forest fire regime. Analysing the forest fires events becomes a prerequisite for safeguarding the forest from further damage. We have made an assessment of the long-term forest fire events at the district level in India and identified the forest fire hotspot districts. The spatial seasonal (January to June) district wise pattern and forest fire trend were analysed. In the second part of the study area (central part of India), we have evaluated the forest fire events in grid format with respect to the climatic/weather datasets, and the statistical analysis Cramer V coefficient (CVC) was performed to understand its association/relationship with forest fire events.
The study revealed that Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills districts of Assam of India have the highest forest fire percent among all districts equivalent to 3.4 and 3.2% respectively. Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh and Garhchiroli district of Maharashtra of India occupied 3rd and 4th rank with value 3.1 and 3.0% respectively. The grid-based evaluation (local scale) revealed that most of the fire equivalent of 80% was found in the month of March and April. Forest fire frequency of the month of April is spread over 88 % of the grids over the study area. The 11 years average seasonal month-wise (February to June) maximum temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, and solar radiation were found in the range of (25.9 to 40.6), (1.69 to 2.7), (0.301 to 0.736) and (14.21 to 22.98) respectively. The percentage increase (in the month of March) of maximum temperature, wind velocity, and solar radiation were 36, 39 and 62% respectively, when compared with the preceding month; whereas, a 60% decrease to relative humidity that was observed in the same month is usually the major cause of forest fire events in the month of March onwards.
The evaluation of Cramer V coefficient (CVC) values of rainfall, relative humidity, potential evapotranspiration, maximum temperature, wind velocity, and solar radiation were in decreasing order and in the range of 0.778 to 0.293. The highest value of rainfall (0.778) showed its strongest association with the forest fire events. In the month of June, these areas receive adequate rainfall, which leads to an increase in the soil moisture and a reduction in forest fuel burning capacity by absorbing the moisture and it is a strong reason for less forest fire events during this month. Geospatial technology provides an opportunity to evaluate large datasets over various spatial and temporal scales and help in decision making/formulating various policies.
The cadastral districts of Stredné Plachtince and Horné Plachtince are situated in the southern part of the Krupinská Planina Mts. in the Carpathian Mts. and about one-third of both the districts is made up of traditional agricultural landscape. Sweet chestnut finds here suitable natural conditions for its growth. The article focuses on the chestnut biocultural value assessment in the given traditional landscape type. Firstly, the field survey concerning chestnuts and old stables identification and positioning was done. Secondly, the data were processed by the geospatial analysis tools in QGIS aiming at the evaluation of chestnuts and old stables spatial distribution in the study area. Thirdly, the chestnut biocultural value was assessed and the modification of current boundary of the given landscape type was proposed. Chestnuts most frequently occurred in the extensively used CLC patches with pastures and heterogeneous agricultural areas - “Land principally occupied by agriculture with significant areas of natural vegetation”, in parallel coinciding with HNV farmlands and habitats of European importance and with local occurrence of the protected bat species. Chestnuts found in the vicinity of old stables partially confirmed their specific function in cattle breading in the past. We can conclude that sweet chestnut supports the value of the traditional landscape type of “pastoral land with meadows” and its current area could be extended correspondingly to our results.
This research focuses on the 2D and 3D geospatial analysis of the Ryukyu Trench, a deep-sea trench located in the western Pacific Ocean between Japan and Taiwan. The aim of the research is to visualize regional differences in the topography of the southern (S) and northern (N) parts of the trench. Technically, the methodology is based on using the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) scripting toolset, for modelling the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO), and Earth Topography and Bathymetry dataset (ETOPO1) raster grids. The results demonstrated topographic differences in the two segments. The most frequent depths lie between -5,000 and -6,000 m. The N part has steeper gradient slopes and deeper bathymetry. Of the depth differences >-6,000 m, S has nine values with depths >-6,800 m while N shows 123 records (max -7,460 m). The submarine terraces of S have gentler slopes compared with the N segment. The technical approach presents GMT-based 2D and 3D cartographic modelling aimed at visualizing regional variations of the seafloor topography.
The author presents a geospatial analysis of the Peru-Chile Trench located in the South Pacific Ocean by the Generic Mapping Tool (GMT) scripting toolset used to process and model data sets. The study goal is to perform geomorphological modelling by the comparison of two segments of the trench located in northern (Peruvian) and southern (Chilean) parts. The aim of the study is to perform automatic digitizing profiles using GMT and several scripting modules. Orthogonal cross-section profiles transecting the trench in a perpendicular direction were automatically digitized, and the profiles visualized and compared. The profiles show variations in the geomorphology of the trench in the northern and southern segments. To visualize geological and geophysical settings, a set of the thematic maps was visualized by GMT modules: free-air gravity anomaly, geoid, geology and bathymetry. The results of the descriptive statistical analysis of the bathymetry in both segments show that the most frequent depths for the Peruvian segment of the Peru-Chile Trench range from -4,000 to -4,200 (827 recorded samples) versus the range of -4,500 to -4,700 m for the Peruvian segment (1,410 samples). The Peruvian segment of the trench is deeper and its geomorphology steeper with abrupt slopes compared to the Chilean segment. A comparison of the data distribution for both segments gives the following results. The Peruvian segment has the majority of data (23%) reaching 1,410 (-4,500 m to -4,700 m). This peak shows a steep pattern in data distribution, while other data in the neighbouring diapason are significantly lower: 559 (-4,700 m to -5,000 m) and 807 (-4,200 m to -4,400 m). The Chilean segment has more unified data distribution for depths of -6,000 m to -7,000 m. This paper presents GMT workflow for the cartographic automatic modelling and mapping deep-sea trench geomorphology.