Mexico has become a regular destination for retirees coming from the USA. To date certain aspects of this group of migrants have been analysed, but little is known about those who have changed their place of residence to the Mexico- US border. In this article, the geographical mobility among retired US migrants living in the coastal area of northern Baja California, Mexico, is analysed. Firstly, reasons for retirees moving from the USA to this area are considered, and secondly, the contacts and relationships maintained with the country of origin, measured by the mobility which takes place between both countries; attention will be given to the reasons for these frequent trips, their periodicity, the means of transport used and the impacts. The main source of analysis will be 29 in-depth interviews conducted in 2009 with pensioners living in coastal municipalities of this northern area of Mexico.
The question of migration within the European Union, as well as between its member and non-members states, has become recently an important issue. Among the EU and OECD countries, Poland is not a major recipient of immigrants. However, in recent years one can observe a growing number of both permanent and temporary immigrants, most of whom are Ukrainian citizens, whose main departure motive is work.
The main purpose of the paper is to conduct a comparison of the migration patterns for Poland and Ukraine, as well as survey the mutual causation forces that determine the structure of the Ukraine-Poland migration corridor.
The paper consists of three parts. It starts with an introduction followed, by theoretical backgrounds of migration, outlining its main types and models. The next parts highlight the volume, directions and structure of migration flows for Ukraine and Poland. The evolution of the Ukraine-Poland migration channel and its mutual effect on the economies of both countries is highlighted in the final part.
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Background: In recent years’ income inequality has been an economic issue. The primary instrument for redistributing income is personal income tax. However, based on economic theory income inequality concerns indicators such as wages, transfer payments, taxes, social security contributions, and geographical mobility. Objectives: The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of certain labor market indicators on personal income taxation in Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FB&H). Methods/Approach: Since personal income taxation consists of a very broad definition and for the purpose of this research only, income from dependent (employment) activity is observed. The econometric analysis is conducted using error correction modeling, as well as forecast errors variance decomposition. Results: The error correction model is estimated, and the cointegrating equation indicates that monthly wage and number of employees statistically significantly positively affect personal income taxes in FB&H in the long-run. After two years, the selected labor market indicators explain a considerable part of forecasting error variance of personal income tax revenues. Conclusions: The implementation of reforms in the labor market and tax policies of the FB&H is suggested. In order to achieve necessary reforms, efficient governance and general stable political environment are required.
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