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The helminth fauna of weatherfish (Misgurnus fossilis) in natural range is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in weatherfish are discussed with reference to host specificity and their geographical distribution. The current list of helminth parasites of the weatherfish includes 37 species. Most (15) are digenean trematodes, half of them being larval stages. Only one species of trematode — Allocreadium transversale is more specific parasite of weatherfish. Second largest group are Monogenea, with 10 species. Two of them (Gyrodactylus strelkovi and G. misgurni) are found only in the genus Misgurnus. Tapeworms (6 species) and Nematodes (6 species) are less numerous. No Acanthocephala, however, were ever found.

Parasites of lake minnow, Eupallasella percnurus (Pall.): The state of knowledge and threats

The lake minnow, Eupallasella percnurus (Pall.), has not been subject to any comprehensive ichthyoparasitological study; most information on its parasites comes from studies focused on other fish species. The knowledge of the geographical distribution of its parasites is especially incomplete. This paper presents the most up-to-date list of E. percnurus parasites throughout its distribution range. Most of the trematodes, tapeworms, and nematodes found in this host are larval forms. This means that the parasites use the E. percnurus mainly as an intermediate or paratenic host, and not the definitive host, which is important in light of potential parasite pathogenicity.


Among the ten species of the Nebria genus, present in the Romanian Carpathians, seven are the object of morphological, geographical distribution and molecular biological studies: Nebria (Eunebria) jockischi hoepfneri Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Boreonebria) heegeri Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Boreonebria) gyllenhali Schönherr, 1806, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reichei Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reitteri Rybinsky, 1902, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) bissenica Bielz, 1887, Nebria (Nebria) transsylvanica Germar, 1824, Nebria (Nebria) femoralis alpigrada Csiki 1905), collected from the Maramureș Mt., Rodnei Mt., Parâng Mt., Rarău Mt., Făgăraș Mt., Cozia Mt., Bucegi Mt., Retezat Mt., Muntele Mic and Semenic Mt. The morphological description exploits the body size, the elytral reflection, the colour of the appendages and the legs, the shape of the first antennary segment, its chaetotaxy and that of the submentum, the shape and size of the elytra and alae, the position of the bristles on the ventrites 4-5-6. The shape of the first antennary segment and its chaetotaxy appear as more discriminating criteria, but supposes the integrity of the bristles. The identification is sometimes malaise due to the fragility of the bristles (first antennomere, submentum). Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reichei Dejean, 1826 has a variable chaetotaxy of antenna, 1 to 3 bristles on the first antennomere. The individuals with yellow appendages and legs provided with 2 unequal length can be confused with transsylvanica. They are distinguished by the triangular shape of the aileron (S-shaped in transsylvanica). Molecular data are given for the first time on Carpathian Nebria. The mitochondrial markers (COI I, cyt b) clearly identify the species studied and confirm that alpigrada does not belong to transsylvanica. The results show an infraspecific variability of geographic and altitudinal origin in jockischi one of the most widespread species (gyllenhali, jockischi, reichei).

Heterodera avenae to cereals. Pl. Prot., 22: 301–308 [13] Sabová, M., Valocká, B., Lišková, M., Vargová, V. (1989): Influence of Heterodera avenae Woll., 1924, on the yields of cereals varieties regionalized in the Czech Socialist Republic. Ochrana rostlin, 25: 299–302 [14] Sabová, M., Valocká, B., Lišková, M., Zacha, V., Kubenková, E. (1980): The occurrence and geographical distribution of oat cyst nematode (Heterodera avenae) on Slovakia. Sbor. ÚVTIZ — Ochr. Rostlin, 16: 293–299 [15] Sabová, M., Valocká, B., Zacha, V., Vanček, E., Kubenková, E. (1977): Distribution of

.2016.1 Bączkiewicz A., Buczkowska K. & Chudzińska E. 2005. Geographic distribution of cryptic species of thallose liverworts. In: W. Prus-Głowacki & E. Pawlaczyk (eds.). Variability and Evolution - new perspectives, pp.75-95. Adam Mickiewicz University Press, Poznań. Bączkiewicz A., Sawicki J., Buczkowska K., Polok K. & Zieliński R. 2008. Application of different DNA markersin studies on cryptic species of Aneura pinguis( Jungermanniopsida, Metzgeriales). Cryptogam. Bryol. 29(1): 3-21. Bobiec A. 2002. Białowieża Primeval Forest. The Largest Area of Natural Deciduous Lowland Forest


Impatiens acuminata Benth. ex Hook.f. & Thomson, endemic to Meghalaya in North-Eastern India, is lectotypified here. The species was collected/observed only five times in the 20th century. A detailed description and photographic illustrations based on live plant material is provided for its easy identification along with its comparison to closely related species I. parkinsonii C. E. C. Fisch. Geographical distribution, conservation status and horticultural potentials of the species are also discussed.


The business environment is reshaped by knowledge economy which has taken both competitiveness and doing business to a whole new level. Because knowledge economy plays a key role in the creation of welfare it has been classified as an important reliable indicator for comparing world’s economies. The present paper highlights the geographic distribution of knowledge economy at the level of the European Union by means of factorial analysis. Factor analysis, a well-known statistical clustering technique, has been applied on the 28 EU countries (seen in our study as random variables) with an a priori fixed number of two factors. On each variable, the realisations are given by the scores (normalized between 0 and 1) registered for year 2012 on 12 key Knowledge Economy (KE) indices. The resulting factor structure is compared to the standard geographical grouping of EU countries (NorthWest-SouthEast) in present KE literature. SPSS software has been used for the statistical analysis. The highest correlations attained were in terms of the Global Competitiveness Index, World Happiness Index, R&D expenses signifying that they could also act as predictors in evaluating the status of the knowledge economy of a particular country, whereas weaker correlations can be spotted for enterprises selling online, electric energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and others. In the future, the same relationship can be tested to see whether the influences have changed, in the light of new available data.


With respect to the fulfillment of the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy, the threat of poverty and social exclusion has not been sufficiently reduced in the European Union (EU) over the past decade, and large regional disparities persist. Young people are the most affected by the problems of income poverty, material deprivation and labour market exclusion, which are the three dimensions of poverty and social exclusion. In this article, we focus on comparing the EU countries in terms of the three listed dimensions, while revealing similarities and differences in the incidence and severity of these social phenomena among youth. In addition to measuring dimensions by the currently used AROPE (at risk of poverty or social exclusion) rate, we also use a larger spectrum of relevant indicators for a more comprehensive analysis. While the AROPE aggregate indicator uses the same methodology for the population of young people as for the whole population, our approach includes indicators that are specific to young people. We assume that all dimensions affect each other, so we apply multidimensional statistical methods such as principal components and cluster analysis to analyse them. These methods have revealed that some dimensions affect poverty and social exclusion to a greater extent and others to a lesser extent than might appear to be the case, based on AROPE’s partial rates. Moreover, we present quantified integral indicators that together with the results of the multivariate methods, provide a rather complex picture concerning the geographical distribution of poverty and social exclusion, as well as their dimensions in the EU, for the population of persons aged 18–24 years in 2008 and 2017.

eastern Slovakia (n = 179 /N = 2760) ( Fig. 4 ). According to number of samples examined, we can compare the real locations in eastern and western Slovakia, but the results from Central Slovakia is rather an indicative, due to the low number of samples examined. The statistical significance of differences was found in the incidence protozoan infections (χ 2 , p< 0.01) and also helminthiases (χ 2 , p< 0.0001) between the compared regions of Slovakia. Fig. 4 Geographic distribution of gastrointestinal parasitoses in Slovakia • – Localities with the occurrence of


In this paper, a new Polish record of Linaria genistifolia is presented. It was found on 27 August 2017 in Zabrze, Silesia Province, growing at the foot of the reclaimed slag heap. The updated map of its distribution in Poland is provided using the ATPOL cartogram method.